Sno Title Type URL Theme Country Abstract Regions Keywords Rank Comments Available in DC
1
Clifton J. 2003. Prospects for Co-management in Indonesia’s Marine Protected Areas. Marine Policy, Vol 27. 389-395pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper uses the case study of a recently designated marine protected area (MPA) in Indonesia to demonstrate the range of institutional and cultural obstacles which hinder effective resource management and which serve to highlight the suitability of collaborative approaches to management. The study explores the implications of recent constitutional reform in this regard and presents evidence supporting the case for enhanced efforts to promote co-management of Indonesia's MPAs.
Document,Coral Reefs,Conservation,Co-management,Download,Fisheries Management,Fishing Regulations,Fishing Zones,Governance,Indonesia,Legislation,Local Communities,Marine Parks,MPA,Participatory Management,Policy,Resources Management
4
No
2
Fernandez M and Castilla J C. 2005. Marine Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges. Conservation Biology, Vol 19, No 6. 1752-1762pp.
0
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/cbi/2005/00000019/00000006/art00017
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Chile is one of the world’s leading countries in landings (catch) of marine resources. The paper reviews the development of marine conservation actions since approximately 1970 to date, focusing on the (1) complex legal framework for establishment of marine protected areas, (2) scientific grounds that provided the impetus to establish areas where exploitation is regulated, (3) private efforts that were critical to creating the first marine protected areas, and (4) lessons and constraints derived from this process as well as the challenges ahead. It is interesting to note that most of the existing marine protected areas in Chile are sponsored and administered by private organizations. The sequence in which the development of the different conservation instruments occurred, shows that a high priority reserved for initiatives tending to promote exploitation of the ocean (aquaculture and fisheries), poses challenges and constraints for establishing a network of marine protected areas that combine such apparently diametrically opposing goals as exploitation and preservation of marine species.
MPA,Chile
5
No
3
Christie P, White A and Deguit E. 2002. Starting Point or Solution? Community-based Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol 66. 441-454pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This study contributes to the growing sentiment that it is not realistic for scattered, small no-take areas to maintain fish abundance and diversity on surrounding reefs when intensive fishing effort immediately adjacent to no-take areas removes most fish that exit these areas. This finding emphasizes the importance of nesting individual MPAs within broader management regimes that lead to overall fishing effort reduction and networking of MPAs. Among other recommendations, the authors advocate for continued support for community-based MPAs, a network of MPAs, reduced fishing effort in areas surrounding the MPAs and other management measures to improve the quality of the coral reef habitats.
Philippines,MPA,Conservation
3
No
4
Hilborn R, Micheli F and De Leo G A. 2006. Integrating Marine Protected Areas with Catch Regulation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Vol 63. 642-649pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Previous models of marine protected areas (MPAs) have generally assumed that there were no existing regulations on catch and have frequently shown that MPAs, by themselves, can be used to maintain both sustainable fish stocks and sustainable harvests. This paper explores the impact of implementing an MPA in a spatially structured model of a single-species fish stock that is regulated by total allowable catch (TAC). This study finds that when a stock is managed at maximum sustainable yield, or is overfished, implementation of an MPA will require a reduction in TAC to avoid increased fishing pressure on the stock outside the MPA. In both cases, catches will be lower as a result of overlaying an MPA on existing fisheries management. Only when the stock is so overfished that it is headed towards extinction does an MPA not lead to lower catches.
Catch,Document,Download,Fish Stock,Fisheries Management,Fishing Regulations,MPA,MSY,Stock Management,Sustainable Management,TAC
3
No
5
BOBP. 2000. Report of the Regional Symposium on Marine Protected Areas and Their Management. Bay of Bengal Programme, Chennai, India.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A report of the symposium providing the papers presented on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), the need for it as a tool for fisheries resource management and the management of these parks at the macro and micro level in Malaysia.
Natural Resources Management,Malaysia,Legislation,Fisheries Management,Book,BOBP,Asia
3
No
6
Fonseca H. 2004. Protected areas: Protected Against Whom? World Rainforest Movement, Uruguay and Oilwatch International Secretariat, Ecuador. 198p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Book,Community Based Management,Conservation,Human Rights,MPA,Non-tariff Barriers,Oil and Natural Gas,Protected Areas,Traditional Communities
4
No
7
Ruitenbeek J, Hewawasam I and Ngoile M. 2005. Blueprint 2050: Sustaining the Marine Environment in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. The World Bank, Washington, USA. 125p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Africa,Book,Environmental Management,Marine Environment,MPA,Poverty,Sustainable Development,Tanzania
4
No
8
Singh H S. 2002. Marine Protected Areas in India: Status of Coastal Wetlands and Their Conservation. Gujarat Ecological Education and Research (GEER) Foundation, Gujarat, India. 62p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Andaman and Nicobar Is,Andhra Pradesh,Biosphere Reserve,Book,Coastal Area Management,Conservation,Coral Reefs,Daman and Diu,Estuaries,Goa,Gujarat,India,Lakshwadeep,Maharashtra,Mangroves,Marine Ecosystems,Marine Fisheries,MPA,Orissa,Pondicherry,Seaweeds,Tamil Nadu,West Bengal,Wetlands,Wildlife
4
No
9
Lavides M N, Pajaro M J and Nozawa C M C. 2005. Atlas of Community-based Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines. Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Philippines. 497p
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This book is about marine protected areas located in the various islands of the Philippines and managed or co-managed by fisher communities and peoples' organisations.
Resources Management,Protected Areas,Philippines,NGO,MPA,Marine Reserves,Marine Environment,Maps,Mangroves,LMMPA,Legislation,History,Fishworkers Organisation,Fishermen,Fisheries Resources,Coral Reefs,Community Based Management,Coastal Resources,Coastal Environment,Book,Benefit Sharing,Seagrasses
1
No
10
White A T. 1989. Two Community-based Marine Reserves: Lessons for Coastal Management. Coastal Area Management in Southeast Asia. 85-96p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Contrasts the results of two community based marine resources management projects in Southern Philippines. The process of implementing marine reserves with sanctuary areas in each island is explained and compared.This also discusses the importance of community based management.
Asia,Coastal Area Management,Community Based Management,Document,Marine Resources Conservation,MPA,Philippines
1
No
11
Andrianarivo C. Roland L Rene de, Rajaonarison R, Grandcourt E. Status and Management of the Marine Protected Areas in Madagascar: Draft. International Coral Reef Action Network.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Provides a critical analysis of the progress, including their successes and failures of the management of marine protected areas in Madagascar. Provides case studies of the Nosy Atafana Marine Park part of the Mannanara Nord biosphere reserve and on the Masoala national park.
Africa,Coral Reefs,Document,East Africa,ICAM,Indian Ocean,Madagascar,Marine Ecosystems,MPA,Statistics
1
No
12
Pearce F. 2001. Breaking the Banc Africa's largest Marine Sanctuary is Failing: What Went Wrong. New Scientist, No.23, June 2001. 32-35pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper provides information on the largest marine sanctuary of Africa, and the problems faced in managing these areas.
Document,Fisheries Resources,Marine Resources Conservation,Mauritania,MPA,Resources Management,West Africa
1
No
13
Worms J, Ducrocq M and Abdelkader M S. 2001. A Concerted Approach Towards Managing Living Resources in a Marine Protected Area. Paper for Presentation at the MARE Inaugural Conference
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Conservation,Document,Living Conditions,Living Resources,Marine Ecosystems,Mauritania,MPA,Protected Areas,Resources Management
4
No
14
Christie P, White A and Deguit E. 2002. How Effective are Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines? The Online Magazine for Sustainable Seas, Vol. 5, No.12. 8p
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Stock Management,Protected Areas,Philippines,Natural Resources,MPA,Marine Biodiversity,Fish Stock,Download,Document,Coral Reefs,Community Based Management,Catch
4
No
15
Crawford B R and Tulungen J. 1998. Marine Sanctuaries as a Community-based Coastal Resources Management Model for North Sulawesi and Indonesia. Coastal Resources Center, Rhode Island. 9p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal Communities,Coastal Resources,Community Based Management,Document,Download,Education,Indonesia,Marine Biodiversity,Marine Resources,Models,MPA,Protected Areas,Resources Management
3
No
16
IUCN. 1993. Marine Protected Area Needs in the South Asian Seas Region - Volume 1: Bangladesh. IUCN, Switzerland. 50p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Agriculture,Aquaculture,Bangladesh,Beach,Birds,Climate,Coastal Erosion,Coastal Management,Conservation,Coral Reefs,Document,Download,Economy,Ecotourism,Environmental Legislation,Fisheries,Habitat,Islands,IUCN,Mangroves,Marine Ecosystems,MPA,NGO,Oceanography,Overfishing,Pollution,Protected Areas,Reptiles,Sea Level Rise,Seagrasses,South Asia,Species,Wetlands
3
No
17
Allison G W, Lubchenco J and Carr M H. 1998. Marine Reserves are Necessary but not Sufficient for Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications, Vol 8, Issue 1, Supplement. 79-92pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Biodiversity,Climate Change,Conservation,Document,Fishing Communities,Livelihood,Marine Ecosystems,Marine Reserves,MPA,Research and Development
3
No
18
Hastings A and Botsford L W. 1999. Equivalence in Yield From Marine Reserves and Traditional Fisheries Management. Science, Vol 284.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine reserves have been proposed as a remedy for overfishing and declining marine biodiversity, but concern that reserves would inherently reduce yields has impeded their implementation. It was found that management of fisheries through reserves and management through effort control produce identical yields under a reasonable set of simplifying assumptions corresponding to a broad range of biological conditions. For population with sedentary adults (invertebrates and reef fishes), reserves have important advantages for sustainability, making marine reserves the preferred management approach.
Traditional Management,Traditional Fishing,Sustainable Fisheries,Sedentary Species,Overfishing,MPA,Marine Reserves,Marine Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Effort Control,Ecosystem Approach,Document,Conservation
3
No
19
Ngugi I. 2002. Economic Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study of the Mombasa Marine Park (Kenya). ergo, Journal of the Social Sciences Graduate Student Association, The University of Texas, Dallas, Vol 1, Issue 1. 11p.
0
http://www.utdallas.edu/orgs/ssgsa/ERGO/Zanzpaper%20-%20UTD%20version%20-%20Ngugi.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The conservation of the marine environment is an integral part of the broader initiatives of environmental conservation in Kenya. A major motivation for the delineatio n of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Kenya has been the promotion of tourism and also the need to conserve marine bio-diversity for use by posterity. However, the conservation of marine resources in Kenya has led to certain resource use conflicts between national conservation agencies like the Kenya Wildlife Service and local communities. The study reported in this paper sought to examine the economic implications of the Mombasa Marine Park on a local fishing community, and thus provide an insight into the factors that lead to such conflicts.

In the study, catch related variables pertaining to the marine protected area are found to be significant. At the same time, attitudes of local fishermen towards the establishment of the Park are found to be extremely negative. The reasons for this included park establishment procedures as well as the lack of alternative sources of income for the communities displaced from the area now managed as a park. This paper recommends that in establishing an MPA in a developing and demographically dynamic country like Kenya, conservation authorities should be well aware of and integrate existing traditional systems of resource’s use into modern management practice. This may be achieved through a multi-disciplinary approach to the varied issues related to the establishment and management of MPAs. This approach should build the capacity for active management of any conflict related to the use of resources that may arise.
Tourism,Resources Management,Policy,MPA,Marine Environment,Kenya,Income,Fishing Rights,Fishing Communities,Document,Conservation
3
No
20
CBD. 2003. Report of the AD HOC Technical Expert Group on Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: Convention on Biological Diversity. AD Hoc Technical Expert Group on Protected Areas, First Meeting, Sweden, 10-14 June 2003. 64p.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Biodiversity,CBD,Coastal Ecosystems,Community Based Management,Conservation,Databases,Document,Fisheries Research,Fishing Communities,MCPA,MPA,Protected Areas,Resources Management,Traditional Knowledge
1
No
21
Christie P. 2004. Marine Protected Areas as Biological Successes and Social Failures in Southeast Asia. American Fisheries Society Symposium, Vol 42. 155-164pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are of growing interest globally. They are principally studied from a biological perspective, with some cases documenting improved environmental conditions and increased fish yields. The MPAs that meet narrowly defined biological goals are generally presented as “successes”. However, these same MPAs may, in fact, be social “failures” when social evaluation criteria are applied. A review of four MPAs in the Philippines and Indonesia demonstrates this scenario. This paper reviews the historic and present management structures, using standard measures of biological and social success.
South East Asia,Social Action,Philippines,MPA,Marine Environment,Local Communities,Indonesia,Fisheries Legislation,Environmental Management,Document,Biodiversity
1
No
22
Keyuan Z. 2003. Management of Marine Nature Reserves in China: A Legal Perspective. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
MPA,MARPOL,Marine Reserves,Marine Environment,Legislation,ICAM,Environmental Management,Document,Conservation,China,CBD,UNCLOS,Resources Management
4
No
23
Juinio-Menez M A. 2002. Myths and Realities of Participation in Philippine cbcrm: Lessons From an Analysis of Who Participates in What. The Commons in an Age of Globalisation, The Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, June 17-21 2002, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.
0
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00000839/00/juinio-menezm090502.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper focuses on who among the local community members participate in community-based coastal resources management activities and the nature of their participation based on 47 projects reviewed for the State of the Field of CBNRM Project. The strategies employed by projects to enable and enjoin community participation are reviewed in relation to the costs and benefits of participation to local community members. The factors affecting the sustainability of community participation and community-based coastal resources management interventions are discussed.
Philippines,Participatory Management,MPA,Livelihood,Fishing Communities,Fisheries Management,Fisheries Legislation,Economy,Download,Document,CPR,Conservation,Community Based Management,Coastal Ecosystems,Coastal Communities
3
No
24
Levine A. 2002. Global Partnerships in Tanzania's Marine Resource Management: NGOs, the Private Sector, and Local Communities. The Commons in an Age of Globalisation, The Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, June 17-21 2002, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Tanzania,Resources Management,NGO,MPA,Marine Resources,Local Communities,IUCN,Download,Document,Conservation,Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
25
Kinch J. 2003. Traditional Lands in the Pacific Region: Indigenous Common Property Resources in Convulsion or Cohesion, Second, Brisbane, Australia, September 7-9 2007.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal Communities,Conservation,CPR,Document,Download,Fisheries Management,Islands,Marine Resources,MPA,PNG,Resources Management
4
No
26
Basurto X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-scale Fishing Community. Journal of Society and Natural Resources, Vol 18, Issue 7, Routledge. 643–659pp.
0
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/usnr/2005/00000018/00000007/art00004?token=00441d1392c883b3ba5666d4e2224677e442f20675d7e763b702c23765f7c315118f
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The Seri people, a self-governed community of small-scale fishermen in the Gulf of California, Mexico, have ownership rights to fishing grounds where they harvest highly valuable commercial species of bivalves. Outsiders are eager to gain access, and the community has devised a set of rules to allow them in. Because Seri government officials keep all the economic benefits generated from granting this access for themselves, community members create alternative entry mechanisms to divert those benefits to themselves. Under Hardin's model of the tragedy of the commons, this situation would eventually lead to the overexploitation of the fishery. The Seri people, however, are able to simultaneously maintain access and use controls for the continuing sustainability of their fishing grounds. Using insights from common-pool resources theory, I discuss how Seri community characteristics help mediate the conflict between collective action dilemmas and access and use controls.
Small Scale Fisheries,MPA,Mexico,Institutions,Governance,Fishing Grounds,Fishing Communities,Download,Document,CPR,Community Based Management,Access Rights
4
No
27
Fernandez M and Castilla J C. 2005. Marine Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges. Conservation Biology, Vol 19. 1752-1762pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Aquaculture,Benthic Fisheries,Chile,Coastal Communities,Document,Download,Habitat,Marine Biodiversity,Marine Ecosystems,Marine Parks,Marine Resources,MPA,Resources Management
4
No
28
Lunn K E and Dearden P. 2006. Fishers' Needs in Marine Protected Area Zoning: A Case Study from Thailand. Coastal Management.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal Communities,Conservation,Document,Download,Fisheries Management,Livelihood,Marine Ecosystems,Marine Parks,Marine Resources,MPA,No-take Zones,Small Scale Fisheries
4
No
29
Oracion E G, Miller M L and Christie P. 2005. Marine Protected Areas for Whom? Fisheries, Tourism and Solidarity in a Philippine Community. Ocean and Coastal Management, Vol 48. 393-410pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal Communities,Coastal Management,Conservation,Development,Document,Download,Economy,MPA,Philippines,Protected Areas,Regulations,Tourism
4
No
30
Silva P. Exploring the Linkage between Poverty, Marine Protected Area Management and the Use of Destructive Fishing Gear in Tanzania.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal Ecosystems,Coastal Resources,Conservation,DFT,Document,Fisheries Economy,Fishing Gear,Fishing Industry,Fishing Village,Illegal Fishing,Livelihood,MPA,Poverty,Protected Areas,Tanzania
4
No
31
Cernea M M. 2006. Population Displacement Inside Protected Areas: A Redefinition of Concepts in Conservation Policies. Policy Matters, Issue 14. 8-26pp.
0
http://www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/publications/newsletter/Section%20I-part%201.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
After considerable review of empirical data and evaluation analyses, the World Bank, the African Development Bank and other agencies came to the conclusion that people living in protected areas are made materially worse off and impoverished by the introduction of “restriction of access” to natural resources, enforced as part of conservation projects. This article describes and discusses a significant recent policy revision and development, adopted by the multilateral development banks as a response to that understanding, which has direct relevance for international conservation activities.
Surveys,Resources Management,Protected Areas,Policy,MPA,Local Communities,Document,Displacement,Conservation,Co-management,Access Rights
5
No
32
Weru S. Policy Implications in the Management of Kenya's Marine Protected Areas. WorldFish Center.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Co-management,Conservation,Coral Reefs,Document,Download,Fisheries Legislation,Fisheries Policy,Fishing Communities,Kenya,MPA,Natural Resources,Participatory Management,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
33
Jones P J S. 2007. Point-of-View: Arguments for Conventional Fisheries Management and Against No-take Marine Protected Areas: Only Half of the Story? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, Vol 17, No 1.
0
http://www.springerlink.com/content/yh23wp235t711u71/
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Recent arguments for conventional fisheries management approaches (CFMAs) and against no-take marine protected areas (NTMPAs) are reviewed, i.e. CFMAs are more effective, density-dependant factors will lead to reduced fish stock production in and around NTMPAs, rights-based approaches in combination with CFMAs will be more effective, and natural refuges from fishing already exist. It is concluded that these are largely valid but only form a fisheries management perspective. In relation to different objectives, it is concluded that the arguments against NTMPAs based on their lack of fisheries management benefits must be considered as only applying to the secondary resource conservation objectives of such designations and not to the primary marine biodiversity conservation objectives. On this basis it is argued that it is counter-productive for NTMPAs to deliver potential fisheries management benefits as this detracts from their marine biodiversity conservation objectives and argues that CFMAs are better able to deliver fisheries management objectives. In relation to different science, it is concluded that criticisms of NTMPAs and support for CFMPAs implicitly shift from Mode 1 (reductive, intra-disciplinary) to Mode 2 (holistic, trans-disciplinary) science that is inherent in calls for NTMPAs as part of an ecosystem approach.
No-take Zones,MPA,Marine Ecosystems,Marine Biodiversity,Fisheries Management,Ecosystem Approach,Document,Conservation
3
No
34
Chan W-Y. 2002. The Views of the Indigenous Fishers of the Wakatobi Marine National Park of Sulawesi, on Fish Resources and Conservation Efforts. Thesis, University of Plymouth, UK.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Tourism,Regulations,Protected Areas,National Parks,MPA,Marine Resources,Marine Parks,Marine Ecosystems,Local Communities,Livelihood,Indonesia,Indigenous People,Fisheries Resources,Download,Document,Conservation
4
No
35
Francis J and Bryceson I. 2001. Tanzanian Coastal and Marine Resources: Some Examples Illustrating Questions of Sustainable Use. Lessons Learned: Case Studies in Sustainable Use, IUCN. 27pp.
0
http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg/docs/francis.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Past experience and the current status of coastal and marine resource uses are summarised through the examples chosen in order to explain the main constraints to the attainment of sustainability. Crosscutting issues related to the breakdown of traditional management systems for common property resources in the face of increasing commercialisation, privatisation, and external interventions appear to pose general problems. The general experiences of community projects, legislation, and mitigation measures are assessed from the examples chosen. Presents an array of key factors affecting the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources, and emphasizes on a number of factors, including the need to integrate socio-economic components into conservation programmes.
Traditional Management Systems,Sustainable Use,Resources Management,Protected Areas,Policy,MPA,Mangroves,Institutions,ICAM,Fisheries Policy,Fisheries Legislation,Download,Document,Coral Reefs,Conservation,Coastal Management,Co-management
5
No
36
Fraga J. 2004. Local Perspectives in Conservation Politics: The Case of the Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. Landscape and Urban Planning.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper discusses the institutionalisation of consevation in a biosphere reserve in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. There are four villages in the reserve, whose total population ranges from 800-2500 inhabitants. Decision makers and administrators have focused on biological conservation, failing to understand the social and political relations of the local people who are strongly affected by globalisation and modern conservation policy". Conservation means prohibition leading to conflicts between the local population and the federal authorities.
Biosphere Reserve,Conflicts,Conservation,Displacement,Document,Download,Local Communities,Mexico,MPA,Protected Areas,World Bank
4
No
37
Ferrari M F. 2002. Community Conserved Areas in Southeast Asia - Part 1. IUCN.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper discusses the indigenous and local communities' need to regain lost power in managing and conserving natural resources on which they depend for their livelihood and future development in South East Asia. There needs to be a redistribution of power from the current government-business sector power centres to civil society.
Benefit Sharing,Biodiversity,Cambodia,Capacity Building,CBD,Co-management,Communication,Community Based Management,Conflict Management,Conflict Resolution,Conservation,Customary Rights,Document,Download,Education,Environmental Management,Fisheries Resources,Fishing Communities,Governmentality,Indigenous Communities,Indigenous Knowledge,Indonesia,Legislation,Local Communities,Malaysia,MPA,Participatory Management,Philippines,Policy,Protected Areas,Resources Management,South East Asia,Thailand,Traditional Knowledge,Women
5
No
38
Baird I G. 2000. Integrating Community-based Fisheries Co-management and Protected Areas Management in Laos PDR: Opportunities for Advancement and Obstacles to Implementation. IIED, Evaluating Eden Series Discussion Paper No.14.
0
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/7817IIED.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Between 1993 and 1998, 63 villages in Khong District, Champasak Province, southern Lao P.D.R. established co-management regulations to sustainably manage and conserve inland aquatic resources, including fisheries, in the Mekong River, streams, wetlands and paddy fields. Local government has endorsed these regulations, but villages have been given the mandate to choose what regulations to adopt based on local conditions, traditional ecological knowledge and community consensus.
This paper presents detailed historical and current information regarding the development of the aquatic resource co-management and its monitoring system in Khong District. While many of the lessons learned from the co-management experience in Khong are applicable to other parts of Laos and the region, unique conditions in different areas will require inventive approaches to meet local needs. Common property regimes can break down in crisis, but experience in Khong indicates that they can also be strengthened in response to resource management. This may be aided by the suggestion that villages in Lao, perhaps more than any other region in Southeast Asia, can be characterised as self-sustaining communities relatively unconnected with larger political and social units, and are, in many areas, of low social and economic stratification. It is argued that having the freedom and ability to be flexible with regards to management approaches is one of the biggest advantages of decentralised natural resource management systems. It encourages dynamic adaptive management and keeps regulations relevant. Indeed, experiences in Khong show that it is at least as critical to understand kinship, religious, linguistic, social, economic, political and cultural factors that affect resource management practices as it is to understand ecological processes.
Traditional Fisheries,Sustainable Fisheries,Surveys,Stock Assessment,Protected Areas,Nutrition,MPA,Livelihood,Lao PDR,Inland Fisheries,Food Security,Fishing Communities,Fisheries Management,Download,Document,Community Based Management,Co-management,Cambodia,Aquatic Resources
3
No
39
Walmsley S F and White A T. 2003. Influence of Social, Management and Enforcement Factors on the Long-term Ecological Effects of Marine Sanctuaries. Environmental Conservation, Vol 30, Issue 4. 388-407pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine sanctuaries are increasingly being promoted as tools for conservation and fisheries management. This study investigates the effects of protection over 19 years on substrate composition and fish communities in four marine sanctuaries and corresponding non-sanctuary areas in the Philippines and examines the importance of community support, management measures and enforcement of regulations on these ecological effects.
Philippines,MPA,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
No
40
Christie P and White A T. 2007. Best Practices for Improved Governance of Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas. Coral Reefs, Vol 26, Issue 4. 1047–1056pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coral reef marine protected areas (MPA) are widely distributed around the globe for social and ecological reasons. Relatively few of these MPAs are well managed. This review examines the governance of coral reef MPAs and the means to improve coral reef MPA management. It highlights common governance challenges, such as confused goals, conflict, and unrealistic attempts to scale up beyond institutional capacity. Recommendations, based on field experience and empirical evidence from around the world, are made for best practices at various stages of MPA implementation.
Resources Management,MPA,Governance,Coral Reefs,Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
41
Cinner J E and Pollnac R B. 2004. Poverty, Perceptions and Planning: Why Socioeconomics Matter in the Management of Mexican Reefs. Oceans and Coastal Management, Vol 47, Issue 9-10. 479-493pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper examines relationships between socioeconomic factors and perceptions of coastal resources in Mahahual, Mexico. Residents provide open-ended comments to questions regarding coral reefs and fisheries. Socioeconomic characteristics are examined to see if there are differences in perceptions between socioeconomic groups. It is found that wealth is the most important socioeconomic variable influencing perceptions of coastal resources. The paper concludes that understanding how socioeconomic factors influence people's values of the environment can help in the development of efficacious conservation strategies that address the root causes of environmental degradation, but emphasizes that interventions must complement the complex livelihood strategies of stakeholders such as fishers.
Stakeholders,Socio-economic Aspects,Poverty,MPA,Mexico,Conservation,Community
4
No
42
Pinto da Silva Patricia S V. 2004. From Common Property to Co-management: Lessons from Brazil’s First Maritime Extractive Reserve. Marine Policy, Vol 28. 419-428pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine extractive reserves (MER) are being established in coastal areas of Brazil to protect ‘traditional’ coastal populations and the marine resources upon which their livelihoods depend. This paper examines the challenges Brazil's first open-water MER is facing in trying to achieve these goals. Results from a pilot project in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro suggest that significant social barriers to collective action exist and that local resource governing institutions are not robust. Consequently, fishers are not becoming decisive players in the decision-making process. The implications of these conclusions for future maritime conservation policy in Brazil are explored.
Resources Management,MPA,Governance,Fishing Communities,Extractive Reserves,CPR,Conservation,Co-management,Brazil
4
No
43
Francis J, Nilsson A and Waruinge D. 2002. Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern African Region: How Successful are They? Ambio, Vol 31. 503-511pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This article reviews the governance and management of MPAs in terms of their size and location, the type of MPA, zonation schemes and financial status. The successes of different types of MPAs are discussed based on specific indicators such as changes in biodiversity, infrastructure, compliance to regulations and the level of involvement of primary stakeholders in the management. From the review, it is clear that a fourth generation of MPAs, community based MPAs may be forthcoming. The major issues facing MPAs in the region are highlighted, as well as some regional initiatives striving to address these issues. A number of recommendations are made, aiming to strengthen the establishment and management of MPAs in the eastern African region.
Stakeholders,Participatory Management,MPA,Community Based Management,Africa
4
No
44
Sylvie G and Alder J. 2007. Lessons from Marine Protected Areas and Integrated Ocean Management Initiatives in Canada. Coastal Management, Vol 35, Issue 1. 51-78pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
There is a wave of interest in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and Integrated Management (IM) as tools for addressing declines in marine environments through ecosystem-based management. Lessons learned from seven MPA and two IM initiatives in Canada show how engaging stakeholders results in: building and maintaining momentum through social capital; using the collective knowledge of stakeholders; consensus through formal and informal rules; and developing leadership capacity. However, as the number of issues or the number of stakeholders increases - especially where fisheries are involved - time, resources, and challenges in gaining support and participation increase. Political and administrative obstacles and resistance to change still constitute much of the challenge. Finally, funding and political commitment must be allocated from the start; otherwise momentum stops and it is hard to regain even when funding becomes available.
Stakeholders,Participatory Management,MPA,Legislation,Integrated Management,Ecosystem Based Management
4
No
45
Svein J, van Son T C and Bjorkan M. 2007. Marine Protected Areas: A Governance System Analysis. Human Ecology, Vol 35, Issue 5. 611-622pp.
0
http://www.springerlink.com/content/0288733556559h58/
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promoted as an important marine ecosystem management tool. However, they are complex systems that, from a governance perspective, raise serious challenges with regard to their effectiveness. In this paper, drawing on recent contributions to the so-called “interactive governance theory,” the authors argue that marine and coastal governance is basically a relationship between two systems, a “governing system” and a “system-to-be-governed.” The former system is social: it is made up of institutions and steering mechanisms. The latter system is partly natural, partly social: it consists of an ecosystem, and the resources that this harbours, as well as a system of users and stakeholders who, among themselves, form political coalitions and institutions.
MPA,Institutions,Governance,Ecosystem Based Management
4
No
46
Aswani S, Albert S, Sabetian A and Furusawa T. 2007. Customary Management as Precautionary and Adaptive Principles for Protecting Coral Reefs in Oceania. Coral Reefs, Vol 26, Issue 4. 1009-1021pp.
0
http://www.springerlink.com/content/c92ku5nuppm87473/
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper summarizes an integrated method for selecting Marine Protected Area (MPA) sites and presents empirical evidence that illustrates how an MPA that was largely conceived using indigenous ecological knowledge and existing sea tenure governance (i.e., customary management practices), as part of a regional precautionary and adaptive community-based management plan, is showing signs of biological and social success. The paper shows how hybrid natural and social research approaches in tandem with customary management for designing MPAs can protect coral reefs in Oceania.
Traditional Management Systems,Traditional Management,Traditional Knowledge,Pacific Islands,MPA
4
No
47
Heylings P and Bravo M. 2007. Evaluating Governance: A Process for Understanding How Co-management is Functioning, and Why, in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Oceans and Coastal Management, Vol 50. 174-208pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper analyses the co-management regime in Galapagos and shows that these regime perform strongly in terms of strategic vision, participation, empowerment, consensus orientation and resilience and yet less well in terms of responsible representation, equity and credibility.
Participatory Management,MPA,Governance,Ecuador,Conservation,Conflicts,Co-management
4
No
48
West P, Igoe J, and Brockington D. 2006. Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol 35. 251-277pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This review examines the social, economic and political effects of environmental conservation projects as they are manifested in protected areas. The paper provides special attention on people living in and displaces from protected areas, analyzes the worldwide growth of protected areas over the past 20 years, and offer suggestions for future research trajectories in anthropology. It focuses on social, economic, scientific and political changes in places where there are protected areas and in the urban centres that control these areas. The paper examines the violence, conflict, power relations and governmentality as they are connected to the processes of protection.
Social Issues,Protected Areas,Governance,Displacement,Conflicts,Community
5
No
49
McClanahan T, Davies J, and Maina J. 2005. Factors Influencing Resource Users and Managers’s Perceptions Towards Marine Protected Area Management in Kenya. Environmental Conservation, Vol 32, Issue 1. 42-49pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Non-compliance with MPA regulations is a problem worldwide, and this is being addressed through community programmes. Park service and fisheries department personnel, and fishers living adjacent to three parks were studied to determine their perceptions of MPAs. The result of the research point that there is a need for patience in expecting change in resource users perceptions, adopting an approach in which there is more communication between fishers and managers.
Stakeholders,Participatory Management,MPA,Kenya,Conflicts,Community
4
No
50
Mascia M B. 1999. Governance of Marine Protected Areas in the Wider Caribbean: Preliminary Results of an International Mail Survey. Coastal Management, Vol 27, Issue 4. 391-402pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper is a result of a direct survey of forty-two MPA managers-individuals directly responsible for site management- regarding the institutional arrangements governing the development and management of a single, specified MPA. Results indicated that Wider Caribbean MPAs were usually established without comprehensive information regarding local biological and socioeconomic conditions. Participation in MPA development and management varied extensively by stakeholder group and by governance process. National government and local groups (resident users, local governments, and local nongovernmental organizations) were the stakeholders most frequently "actively involved" in MPA governance.
Social Issues,Participatory Management,MPA,Governance,Caribbean
4
No
51
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration-National Marine Protected Areas Center (NOAA-NMPAC). 2005. Social Science Research Strategy for Marine Protected Areas. MPA Science Institute, NOAA, Santa Cruz, California.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The National Marine Protected Areas Center (NMPAC), working with several agency and nongovernmental partners, has developed a national strategy for social science research. This document identifies high priority needs for social science information that are fundamental to the planning, management and evaluation of MPAs and recommends practical ways to meet them through research, assessment, capacity building and leveraged funding. The issues identified here are national – and even international - in scope and apply to MPAs designed for many purposes under many jurisdictions.
Social Issues,MPA,Governance,Capacity Building
3
No
52
Thorkildsen K. 2006. Tanzanian Case Studies: Chumbe Island, Zanzibar. "Presentation at Marine Protected Areas (MPA) - A Useful Tool in Fisheries Management?" 24-25 October 2006, Trondhiem to Bergen, Norway.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This presentation identifies the various conflicts, between communities and management authorities, in the privately managed MPA in Zanzibar.
Tanzania,Social Issues,MPA,Governance,Community
3
No
53
World Bank. 2006. Scaling Up Marine Management: the Role of Marine Protected Areas. World Bank Report No. 36635-GLB, Washington D C. 100 pp.
0
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/11/09/000310607_20061109130345/Rendered/PDF/366350PAPER0GL1hite0cover001PUBLIC1.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
In this report, the World Bank assesses factors likely to determine marine protected areas’ (MPA) success and identifies opportunities for the Bank and its partners to scale up MPA implementation to meet global conservation targets, such as those set at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The report focuses on how best to capture the potential benefits of MPAs for helping the world’s poor, while addressing the sociocultural and political realities of restricting access to the sea and regulating what has traditionally been considered common property.
Stakeholders,Social Issues,Resources Management,Philippines,Participatory Management,MPA,Governance,Culture,CPR,Conservation,Chile,Brazil
4
No
54
Aguilar-Perera A, Scharer M and Valdes-Pizzini M. 2006. Marine Protected Areas in Puerto Rico: Historical and Current Perspectives. Ocean and Coastal Management, Vol 49. 961-975pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
In Puerto Rico, the environmental legislation for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) is complex due to its current political position with the United States (US) as not only local but also federal US laws affect designations. Currently, of the 37 MPAs recognized and investigated in this work, the vast majority (73%) are Natural Reserves, followed by Commonwealth Forests (13.5%). Most MPAs in Puerto Rico were implemented using a top-down approach (i.e., government) which follows US federal guidelines for protecting endangered species, critical habitats, and natural and cultural resources. The development of management plans for MPAs on the island is increasingly adopting a public participatory process. However, this latter process is new for the government of Puerto Rico that has not incorporated a policy based on an Integrated Coastal Management.
USA,Stakeholders,Participatory Management,MPA
4
No
55
Granek E E and Brown M A. 2005. Co-management Approach to Marine Conservation in Moheli, Comoros Islands. Conservation Biology, Vol 19, Issue 6. 1724-1732pp.
0
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/cbi/2005/00000019/00000006/art00014
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Many developing countries experience habitat degradation and unsustainable natural resource exploitation, with biodiversity and habitat conservation efforts often impeded by political instability and limited funding. Challenges in previous conservation efforts coupled with the current rate of marine habitat degradation and species declines warrant consideration of an innovative conservation approach. Co-management of protected areas addresses biological, cultural, economic, and political concerns and empowers communities through collaboration and integration in conservation efforts. It provides flexibility for adaptive practices to address underlying socioeconomic factors affecting conservation efforts and may compensate for limited or missing scientific data. The ecosystems of the Comoros Islands in the West Indian Ocean, a biodiversity hotspot with high endemism and diverse tropical marine habitats, are adversely affected by existing ecological, socioeconomic, and political conditions. The Comoros example also illustrates that co-management is not immune to social issues, inadequate government law enforcement, or political instability and is an incomplete substitute for sound science. Lessons learned are applicable elsewhere and offer a template for effective scientific research and monitoring, policy making, and management of protected areas in developing nations.
Social Issues,MPA,Comoros,Co-management
4
No
56
Lundquist C J and Granek E F. 2005. Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political and Scientific Factors. Conservation Biology, Vol 19, No 6, Blackwell Publishing. 1771-1778pp.
0
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/cbi/2005/00000019/00000006/art00019
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
As the process of marine-protected-area design and implementation evolves, the incorporation of new tools will advance our ability to create and maintain effective protected areas. We reviewed characteristics and approaches that contribute to successful global marine conservation efforts. One successful characteristic emphasized in most case studies is the importance of incorporating stakeholders at all phases of the process. Clearly defined goals and objectives at all stages of the design process are important for improved communication and standardized expectations of stakeholder groups. The inclusion of available science to guide the size and design of marine protected areas and to guide clear monitoring strategies that assess success at scientific, social, and economic levels is also an important tool in the process. Common shortcomings in marine conservation planning strategies include government instability and resultant limitations to monitoring and enforcement, particularly in developing nations. Transferring knowledge to local community members has also presented challenges in areas where in situ training, local capacity, and existing infrastructure are sparse. Inaccessible, unavailable, or outdated science is often a limitation to conservation projects in developed and developing nations. To develop and maintain successful marine protected areas, it is necessary to acknowledge that each case is unique, to apply tools and lessons learned from other marine protected areas, and to maintain flexibility to adjust to the individual circumstances of the case at hand.
Stakeholders,Social Issues,Participatory Management,MPA,Conservation
3
No
57
Pinto da Silva Patricia S V. 2002. Common Property to Co-management: Social Change and Participation in Brazil’s First Maritime Extractive Reserve. Thesis, London School of Economics, London.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This thesis explores the relationship between Maritime Extractive Reserves in Brazil and the traditional coastal communities they are created to protect. Specifically, it investigates the quality of the institutions which have traditionally governed the beach seining community in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It then analyses the levels and kinds of participation and perceptions of the newly created Extractive Reserve, which attempts to build upon these traditional relationships. Finally, the study identifies community level factors that constrain or provide potential for long-term participatory conservation in this area.
Participation,Extractive Reserves,Conservation,Coastal Communities,Brazil
4
No
58
Rajagopalan R. 2007. Restricting Lives and Livelihoods. Yemaya: Gender and Fisheries Newsletter Issue No. 26, November 2007. 2-3pp.
newsletters
http://www.icsf.net/images/yemaya/pdf/english/issue_26/1316_art01.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
The recent enforcement of ‘no take’ regulations in the Gulf of Mannar National Park compromises the livelihood security of fisherwomen and local communities
Asia
Women,Sustainable Use,Stakeholders,Social Issues,Small Scale Fisheries,Resources Management,Protected Areas,Organizations,Organisations,No-take Zones,National Parks,MPA,Marine Resources Conservation,Marine Resources,Marine Reserves,Marine Parks,Local Communities,India,Gender,Fishworkers Organization,Fishworkers Organisation,Fishworkers,Fishing Zones,Fishing Rights,Fishing Regulations,Fishing Communities,Fisheries Resources,Displacement,Conservation,Conflicts,Community Organizations,Community Organisations,Coastal Villages,Coastal Resources,Coastal Fisheries,Coastal Environment,Biosphere Reserve,Artisanal Fisheries,Access Rights
4
No
59
Aswani S and Weiant P. 2003. Shellfish Monitoring and Women’s Participatory Management in Roviana, Solomon Islands. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 12, May 2003. 3-11pp
0
http://www.spc.int/coastfish/News/WIF/WIF12/WIF12.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
In 1999, the women of Baraulu and Bulelavata villages in Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands, created a community-based marine protected area to sustain marine resources valuable for nutrition and income-generation. This has resulted in sustaining invertebrate biological resources and in promoting strong community support. The paper outlines the details of the project, its biological results, the processes involved ensuring community participation and lessons learnt. A high level of community involvement is achieved when positive scientific results generated by the monitoring protocol, are returned to the community. This educational process cross-fertilized indigenous and Western knowledge and increased women’s interest in the project and their direct participation in monitoring and enforcement. The project’s success has encouraged several nearby villages to launch conservation initiatives.
Oceania
Income,Marine Resources,Sustainable Fisheries,Community Based Management,MPA,Women,Solomon Is,Traditional Knowledge,Resources Management,Nutrition,Monitoring,Food Security,Empowerment,Ecology,Conservation
4
No
60
WilliamsS B, Hochet-Kibongui A-M and Nauen C E. 2005. Gender, Fisheries, and Aquaculture: Social Capital and Knowledge for the Transition Towards Sustainable Use of Aquatic Ecosystems. ACP-EU Fisheries Research Report Number 16, Brussels. 32p.
0
Women and Resources Management N/a
Fishing communities are faced with massive aquatic ecosystem degradation caused largely by unsustainable fishing, and associated socio-economic challenges. In this context, aquaculture has given mixed signals with high economic growth rates but some unsustainable consequences. This raises the question about women's contribution in fisheries and aquaculture towards sustainability and restoration of lost productivity. Empirical evidence of women’s roles in all continents shows patterns of unrecognized, unpaid labour that clouds the economic signals of increasing resource rarefaction. Historically, women have been associated with resource conservation embedded in traditional belief systems, which have been progressively eroded. Where social recognition is achieved through e.g. enforcement of modern equal opportunity legislation—especially when combined with access to formal education and training—women regain capabilities for enhanced social organization and leadership. This can lead to significant contributions to restoration of natural resources. The paper proposes a participatory method to render women's role visible and enable development of socio-economic organization supportive of social justice and sustainable resource use. The case studies are from Canary Islands in Spain, Brittany region of France, Southern Nigeria, Amazonian and South Eastern Brazil, Mexico, Newfoundland and Labrador, Pacific Islands, coastal Asia and the Mekong Region.
World
Spain,Socio-economic Aspects,Role,Resources Management,Pacific Islands,Overcapacity,Organizations,Organisations,Nigeria,Newfoundland,Mexico,Mekong Delta,Marine Fisheries,Labour,Labor,History,France,Fishing Communities,Empowerment,Education,Economy,Conservation,Canada,Brazil,Asia,Aquaculture,Amazon,Women,Training,Traditional Fisheries,Sustainable Use
4
No
61
Skeleton P and South G R. 1998. Women, Marine Awareness and Marine Conservation in Samoa: Technical report, in SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 3, December 1998. 27p
0
http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/News/WIF/WiF2.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
This technical report examines the current involvement of women in marine awareness and conservation issues in Samoa. It defines the importance of the role of women in sustainable development strategies and look at options for strengthening this role.
Oceania
Women,Sustainable Development,Samoa,Reproductive Labour,Reproductive Labor,Marine Resources,Gender,Empowerment,Conservation
4
No
62
Kibria MdG, Edwards P, Kelkar G and Demaine H. 1999. Women in Pond Aquaculture in the Oxbow Lakes of Bangladesh. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 4, Issue 4. 7-14pp.
0
Women and Resources Management N/a
Fish and fisheries play an integral part of the culture and tradition in the life of the people of Bangladesh. The country has some 600 oxbow lakes created from dead river-bends scattered over the southwestern region of the country. The introduction of community management in 23 of the common property oxbow lakes has involved active participation of women. Women are successfully included in the management of oxbow lake fisheries under the Oxbow Lake Small-Scale Fishermen Project II. An assessment is made of the technological and socio-economic effects of Fish Farming Group pond aquaculture, with emphasis on the involvement of women. Some recommendations are made based on social, technological and gender aspects for the future sustainability of Fish Farming Groups.
Asia
Women,Technology,Socio-economic Aspects,Reproductive Labour,Reproductive Labor,Pond Fish Culture,Participatory Management,Lakes,Gender,Community Management,Bangladesh,Aquaculture
3
No
63
Report on the Women in Fisheries (WIF) Conference in Mindanao January 27-29 2004, Bonbon, Cagayan de Oro City.
0
Women and Resources Management N/a
This is a report on a three-day workshop where women leader representatives from Visayas and Mindanao met to develop a deeper understanding of women in fisheries so that women can become central to coastal zone management, and can enhance their active participation in implementing the Fisheries Code, and particularly in the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils [FARMC]. A unique feature of the workshop was its participative and process-oriented methodology wherein women moved on a reflective journey beginning from an untainted paradise of the bygone days to the prevailing realities, to arrive upon root causes of current issues.
Asia
Women,Reproductive Labour,Reproductive Labor,Philippines,Labour,Labor,History,Gender,Coastal Zones,Coastal Management
3
No
64
Shon T. 1998. Role of Women in Samoan Society: The Sacred Convenant. Extracted from: ‘Women and Rural Fisheries Development: A Case Study of Auala-Savaii’. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin, Issue 2, March 1998. 7-12pp.
0
http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/News/WIF/WiF2.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
This research discusses the role of women in traditional Samoan society. It also outlines a prawn project in Auala, a Samoan village, as a case study that demonstrates the value of women’s labour in sustaining Samoa’s marine environment as well as in contributing to the local economy and well-being. Finally, it draws attention to the complete exclusion of women in Samoa from the decision-making processes in the rural Fisheries Management Plan, and to the necessity of integrating their roles on the ground with the Plan.
Oceania
Women,Traditional Fisheries,Samoa,Role,Reproductive Labour,Reproductive Labor,Policy,Marine Environment,Labour,Labor,Gender,Fishing Communities,Fisheries Management,Employment Discrimination,Economy,Ecology,Decision Making,Aquaculture
2
No
65
Kinch J. 2003. Marine Mollusc Use Among the Women of Brooker Island, Louisiade Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 13, December 2003, New Caledonia. 5-14pp.
0
http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/News/WIF/WIF13/WIF13.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
Brooker Islanders use approximately 5000 sq km of sea territory—an extensive and diverse marine environment. Their livelihoods, identity and culture is dependent on this environment. This paper outlines the ecological relationship and understanding that Brooker women have about marine life, particularly molluscs.
Oceania
Women,Traditional Fisheries,Territorial Sea,Role,Marine Environment,Livelihood,Islands,Gender,Fishing Communities,Exclusion,Ecology,Culture
2
No
66
Vunisea A. 1997. Women’s Fishing Participation in Fiji (with emphasis on women’s fisheries knowledge and skills). SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 1, October 1997, New Caledonia. 10-13pp.
0
http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/News/WIF/WiF1.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
As in other Pacific Islands, women in Verata dominate in the subsistence fishing sector, with increasing involvement in the local commercial fishery. In addition to significant contributions to the nutrition requirements of their homes, women fishers actively participate in the market economy with the commercialization of previously subsistence target species. Women face two disadvantages. In the traditional context, they were predominantly disadvantaged by conventional restrictions or taboos with their subsistence fishing activities invisibilized under household work, and in the changing economical condition, where fishing is shifting from subsistence to serving markets, women’s labour has increased without a corresponding increase in acknowledgement and status. Official documentation, for instance, still does not account for their participation in markets and overlooks it. Further, their traditional sustainable fishing practices that acted as a safeguard against misuse or over-exploitation of resources, are now being bypassed. The article documents the traditional practices that women employ and concludes by stating the need to understand and promote fishing methods that women use; include them in decision-making processes; and support the increase of their capacities.
Oceania
Women,Target Species,Subsistence Fisheries,Pacific Islands,Overcapacity,Nutrition,Markets,Labour,Labor,Food Security,Fishing Methods,Employment Discrimination,Economy,Documentation,Decision Making,Commercial Fishing
4
No
67
Brown J. 2007. Fishing for Tourists: Women Play Leadership Roles in Lagoon Management. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 16, March 2007, New Caledonia. 27pp.
0
http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/WIF/WIF16/WIF16_27_Brown.pdf
Women and Resources Management N/a
This article gives a brief account of Cooks Island fisheries. The small-scale sector has limited opportunities for participation by both men and women, though the sector is dominated by men. Women have now begun to take a more prominent role in protecting coastal fisheries.
Oceania
Women,Small Scale Fisheries,Resources Management,Ecology,Cooks Is,Conservation,Coastal Fisheries
3
No
68
Kittitornkool J. 1996. Women in Southern Thailand Small-scale Fishing Villages: Amidst Surging Waves. Workshop on Gender Relations in Fisheries. Senegal, June 10 -18, 1996. 23p.
0
Women and Resources Management N/a
Women in southern small-scale fishing villages in Thailand take care of the family, do all the household chores and also go fishing with men. This is particularly true in fishing villages where community organizations have worked to solve issues related to coastal resource degradation. Women in these villages play a significant role in initiating, mobilizing and implementing a variety of activities. Yet these roles played by women are not recognized in Thai society. This paper presents primary information on these roles.
Asia
Coastal Resources,Community Organisations,Community Organizations,Ecology,Fishing Village,Gender,Income,Informal Sector,Labor,Labour,Small Scale Fisheries,Sustainable Fisheries,Thailand,Women
2
No
69
Rajagopalan R and Patel V. 2009. Managing to Benefit. SAMUDRA Report 52, April 2009.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_52/3295_art_ART04.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A workshop on marine protected areas in India suggested ways to achieve livelihood-sensitive conservation and management of coastal and fisheries resources.
Asia
Resources Management,MPA,India,Conservation,Community Management
3
No
70
Fraga J. 2009. Caught up in Change. SAMUDRA Report 52, April 2009.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_52/3296_art_ART05.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The experience of traditional fisheries in marine reserves in Mexico's Yucatan State reveals the influence of social and economic effects.
Latin America
Socio-economic Aspects,MPA,Mexico
3
No
71
Johnstone G. 2009. Importance of Social Capital. SAMUDRA Report 52, April 2009.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_52/3297_art_ART06.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine protected areas should factor in social capital-the relationships, networks, norms and sanctions that connect different people and institutions.
Africa
MPA,Mozambique
3
No
72
Sharma C. 2008. Breaking Away from Tradition. SAMUDRA Report 50, September 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_50/3194_art10.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The Ninth Meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP9) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) saw calls for a balance between the objectives of biological conservation and social justice.
MPA,Conservation
3
No
73
—2008. Recognize Rights. Statement delivered by Chandrika Sharma of ICSF on behalf of civil society organizations at a meeting on 11 February 2008 in Rome, Italy. SAMUDRA Report 49, March 2008.
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_49/3143_art03.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The following statement on the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Programme of Work on protected areas was delivered on 11 February 2008, at the 2nd Meeting of the ad hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Protected Areas, in Rome.
Protected Areas,CBD
3
No
74
Sharma C. 2008. Towards a New Commons. SAMUDRA Report 49, March 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_49/3144_art04.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A recent ICSF workshop drew on country case studies to provide a small-scale fishing community perspective on marine protected areas.
Small Scale Fisheries,MPA
3
No
75
le Sann A. 2008. Reversing from a Dead End. SAMUDRA Report 49, March 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_49/3148_art08.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The Iroise marine park in Brittany, France, could serve as a model for fishermen who wish to move towards sustainable fisheries while retaining their sources of livelihood.
Europe
Subsistence Fisheries,Marine Parks,France,Fishermen
3
No
76
ICSF. 2007. Reserving a Role for Communities. Comment. SAMUDRA Report 48, November 2007.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_48/3109_edit01.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Communities, if seen as rights holders, can be powerful allies in conservation and management of coastal and marine resources through protected areas.
Fishing Communities,Fisheries Management,Conservation
3
No
77
—2007. Be Consultative, Participatory. Statement issued during the Anglophone Africa Workshop, 3–16 August 2007 at Cape Town, South Africa. SAMUDRA Report 48, November 2007.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_48/3105_art09.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The statement of Anglophone Africa Sub-regional Workshop on the review of, and capacity building for, the implementation of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas.
Africa
CBD,Capacity Building,Africa
3
No
78
—2007. Declaration of Charter. Adopted at the workshop on “Fisheries and Marine Reserves in India”, 8-10 October 2007, New Delhi, India. SAMUDRA Report 48, November 2007.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_48/3107_art11.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The Declaration of Charter was adopted at the workshop on "Fisheries and Marine Reserves in India", held in New Delhi, India.
Asia
India
3
No
79
le Sann A. 2007. An Integrated Approach. SAMUDRA Report 47, July 2007.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_47/3065_art05.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The French experience shows that if fishermen are convinced of the potential benefits of marine protected areas, they will take an active part in their implementation.
Europe
MPA,France
3
No
80
—2006. Only four years left to 2010! Joint NGO Statement on Protected Areas presented to the 8th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 8) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 23 March 2006, Curitiba, Brazil. SAMUDRA Report 43, March 2006.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_43/954_art03.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A joint NGO statement at the 2006 meeting of the CBD called for the involvement of indigenous/local communities.
Indigenous Communities,CBD
3
No
81
Lahangir S. 2006. Life Studies. SAMUDRA Report 43, March 2006.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_43/962_art11.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A seasonal fishing ban meant to conserve turtles in Orissa, India, has fatally affected fishing communities.
Asia
Orissa,India,Fishing Communities,Conservation
3
No
82
Di Ciommo R C. 2005. Dreams vs Painful Realities. SAMUDRA Report 42, November 2005
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_42/934_art04.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
There are contradictions aplenty on both land and sea in the Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve, Brazil.
Latin America
Brazil
3
No
83
Petersen C, Jaffer N and Sunde J. 2005. Making Local Communities Visible. SAMUDRA Report 42, November 2005.
Documents and Reports
http://icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_42/937_art07.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
There are issues surrounding MPAs and the livelihoods of coastal communities within them.
MPA,Livelihood,Coastal Communities
3
No
84
Jaffer N. 2005. Speaking for Ourselves. SAMUDRA Report 42, November 2005.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_42/938_art08.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Some reflections on the first International Marine Protected Area Congress, and the need for a human perspective.
MPA
3
No
85
Mcdonald B. 2004. Filleting Nemo. SAMUDRA Report 38, July 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_38/845_art01.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
For many indigenous communities, national and marine parks can be significant threats to their hunting and fishing rights
Marine Parks,Indigenous Communities
3
No
86
ICSF et al. 2004. Deal With Hunger and Poverty First. Comment. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2975_edit.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Coastal and indigenous fishing communities undoubtedly have a long-term stake in the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity, given their reliance on coastal and marine biodiversity for livelihoods and income
Livelihood,Indigenous Communities,Income,Biodiversity
3
No
87
—2004. Recognize rights. Statement made at the Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP7), 9 to 20 February 2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Agenda item 18.2: Thematic Programme of work: marine and coastal biodiversity. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2983_art08.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The following statement was issued at the 2004 meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD.
CBD
3
No
88
2004. Uphold traditional fishing rights. Statement on marine and coastal biological diversity made by the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB) under Agenda Item: 18.2 at the COP7, Kuala Lumpur, 9-20 February 2004. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2984_art09.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This statement of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity was made at the 2004 meeting of the CBD.
Indigenous People,Indigenous Communities
3
No
89
—2004. Marine and coastal protected areas. Draft decision on the review of the programme of work on marine and coastal biological diversity (Agenda item 18.2), submitted by the Chair of Working Group I of the Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity on 20 February 2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2987_art12.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The following is the draft decision on marine and coastal biological diversity taken at the 2004 meeting CBD.
CBD,Biodiversity
3
No
90
—2004.Governance, Participation, Equity, Benefit Sharing. Draft decision on the review of the programme of work on marine and coastal biological diversity (Agenda item 24), submitted by the Chair of Working Group I of the Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity on 20 February 2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2988_art13.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Programme element 2 in the Annex on programme of work on protected areas under Agenda item 24 is relevant to fishworkers.
Participation,Governance,CBD,Benefit Sharing
3
No
91
Sharma C. 2004. Sustaining Livelihoods. SAMUDRA Report 37, March 2004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_37/2989_art14.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This is a brief account of the discussions at the 2004 meeting of the CBD on Agenda Item 18.2 on marine and coastal biological diversity
CBD,Biodiversity
3
No
92
ICSF. 2003. Parking in the Right Place. Comment. SAMUDRA Report 36, November 2003.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_36/766_edit.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Even in “strictly protected areas”, it is argued for permitting artisanal and community-based fisheries to operate, as long as their fisheries are not a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem, as determined by science-based observations. An ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management should consider fishers as part of the ecosystem, and not as outsiders.
Fisheries,Ecosystem Approach
3
No
93
Mathew S. 2003. Jammed in Jambudwip. SAMUDRA Report 34, March 2003.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_34/656_art10.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The traditional stake-net fishers of the ecologically sensitive Jambudwip island, West Bengal, India, face a likely ban of their seasonal fisheries
Asia
West Bengal,India
3
No
94
Berkes F. 2004. Rethinking Community-Based Conservation. Conservation Biology, Volume 18, No. 3. 621-630pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Community-based conservation (CBC) is based on the idea that if conservation and development could be simultaneously achieved, then the interests of both could be served. It has been controversial because community development objectives are not necessarily consistent with conservation objectives in a given case. I examined CBC from two angles. First, CBC can be seen in the context of paradigm shifts in ecology and applied ecology. I identified three conceptual shifts—toward a systems view, toward the inclusion of humans in the ecosystem, and toward participatory approaches to ecosystem management—that are interrelated and pertain to an understanding of ecosystems as complex adaptive systems in which humans are an integral part. Second, I investigated the feasibility of CBC, as informed by a number of emerging interdisciplinary fields that have been pursuing various aspects of coupled systems of humans and nature. These fields—common property, traditional ecological knowledge, environmental ethics, political ecology, and environmental history—provide insights for CBC. They may contribute to the development of an interdisciplinary conservation science with a more sophisticated understanding of social-ecological interactions. The lessons from these fields include the importance of cross-scale conservation, adaptive comanagement, the question of incentives and multiple stakeholders, the use of traditional ecological knowledge, and development of a cross-cultural conservation ethic.
Participation,Co-management
3
No
95
Cinner J E, Daw T and McClanahan T R. 2009. Socioeconomic Factors that Affect Artisanal Fishers’ Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 1. 124–130pp.
0
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The emerging world crisis created by declining fish stocks poses a challenge to resource users and
managers. The problem is particularly acute in poor nations, such as those in East Africa, where fishing is an important subsistence activity but high fishing intensity and use of destructive gear have resulted in declining catches. In this context developing effective management strategies requires an understanding of how fishers may respond to declines in catch. We examined the readiness of 141 Kenyan fishers to stop fishing under hypothetical scenarios of declines in catch and how socioeconomic conditions influenced their decisions. As expected, the proportion of fishers that would exit the fishery increased with magnitude of decline in catch. Fishers were more likely to say they would stop fishing if they were from households that had a higher material style of life and a greater number of occupations. Variables such as capital investment in the fishery and the proportion of catch sold had weak, nonsignificant relationships. Our finding that fishers from poorer households would be less likely to exit a severely declining fishery is consistent with the literature on poverty traps, which suggests the poor are unable to mobilize the necessary resources to overcome either shocks or
chronic low-income situations and consequently may remain in poverty. This finding supports the proposition
that wealth generation and employment opportunities directed at the poorest fishers may help reduce fishing
effort on overexploited fisheries, but successful interventions such as these will require an understanding of the socioeconomic context in which fishers operate.
Africa
Livelihood,Kenya,Coral Reefs,Artisanal Fisheries
3
No
96
Auster P J, Fujita R, Kellert S R, Avise J, Campagna C, Cuker B, Dayton P, Heneman B, Kenchington R, Stone G, Di Sciara G N and Glynn P. 2009. Developing an Ocean Ethic: Science, Utility, Aesthetics, Self-Interest, and Different Ways of Knowing. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 1. 233–235pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
3
No
97
Dudley N (ed.). 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 86pp.
Documents and Reports
N/a
Protected Areas
3
No
98
Anoko J N. 2008. Gender and equity in the Protected Areas of West Africa.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This aim of this guide is to elucidate the multiple dimensions of the process of taking into consideration the principle of equity in the management of West African Protected Areas: above all equity between the sexes, but also between young and old, rich and poor etc. Based on a diagnosis carried out in several Protected Areas (Guinea, Mauritania and Senegal), this work proposes tools for managers of protected areas, and all those committed to an “equity policy”, at various intervention levels (politico-institutional, governance, and stakeholders).
Africa
West Africa,Gender,Guinea,Senegal,Mauritania,Protected Areas
3
No
99
Blount B G. 2008. An Anthropological Research Protocol for Marine Protected Areas: Creating a Niche in a Multidisciplinary Cultural Hierarchy.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Anthropologists who venture into planned multidisciplinary research in marine systems become enmeshed in a social and cultural system of disciplinary hierarchy that constrains the nature and type of expected research. The hierarchical system that favors biology, ecology, and economics before other social sciences is deeply ingrained in U.S. cultural models and enacted managerially in multidisciplinary research agendas. Within that framework, anthropology is one of the social sciences that modifies economics in the form of socioeconomics. Anthropology as socioeconomics is challenged to carve out research questions within the hierarchical framework. A meta-analysis of the design, implementation, and evaluation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) shows that questions of social and economic equity are in the forefront of fishers' concerns about MPAs, providing a topic of immediate and practical concern for socioeconomic and anthropological research.
MPA,Social Issues
3
No
100
Mascia M B and Claus C A. 2009. A Property Rights Approach to Understanding Human Displacement from Protected Areas: the Case of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 1. 16–23pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The physical, economic, and sociocultural displacement of local peoples from protected areas generates intense discussion among scholars and policy makers. To foster greater precision and clarity in these discussions, we used a conceptual framework from the political economy literature to examine different forms
of human displacement from protected areas. Using marine protected areas (MPAs) to ground our analysis,
we characterized the 5 types of property rights that are reallocated (lost, secured, and gained) through the
establishment of protected areas. All forms of MPA “displacement” involve reallocation of property rights, but the specific types and bundles of rights lost, secured, and gained dramatically shape the magnitude, extent, and equity of MPA impacts—positive and negative—on governance, economic well-being, health, education, social capital, and culture. The impacts of reallocating rights to MPA resources vary within and among social groups, inducing changes in society, in patterns of resource use, and in the environment. To create more
environmentally sustainable and socially just conservation practice, a critical next step in conservation social science research is to document and explain variation in the social impacts of protected areas.
Livelihood,Marine Reserves,National Parks
3
No
101
Higgins R M, Vandeperre F, Perez-Ruzafa A and Santos R S. 2008. Priorities for fisheries in marine protected areadesign and management: Implications for artisanal-type fisheries as found in southern Europe. Journal for Nature Conservation, Vol 16. 222-233pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GJ6-4TY3Y0X-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=0b803168bf1fe0ec54e
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Much has been written in recent years regarding the advantages of marine protected areas (MPAs) as conservation tools. The benefits to fisheries have commonly been cited as primary motives in favour of the establishment of MPAs. To date, a good deal has been theorised with regard to the benefit of MPAs to fisheries in their adjacent areas, but there has been little empirical evidence to support or refute hypothetical claims. Considerations for fisheries’ benefits are different to those of ecological benefits in several respects. Economically, fishers’ livelihoods often depend on the marine reserve being successful. It is not enough to establish that populations of fish are growing due to protection; stocks, as well as individual fish have to be sufficiently large to be catchable by the industry. Furthermore, restrictions in fishable area ought to be compensated for by increases in catches over time. In terms of the biology of the fish themselves, evidence has shown that heavily exploited commercial fish stocks can take much longer to recover from over-exploitation than previously expected. Although there have been several studies that consider the effects of export and spill-over, there have been few that focus on the patterns that these phenomena might have on the surrounding fisheries; many assume that ecological patterns will manifest in the fishery with time. Recently, assessment methods and predictive models have been suggested for fisheries (e.g. Rapfish, Ecopath/Ecosim), some of which have been adapted specifically for MPAs. In this paper we review recent progress in the field of MPA research with particular focus on fisheries assessment. We also identify priorities, and knowledge gaps, for determining and accurately predicting the benefits of MPAs to fishers.
Conservation,MPA,Fisheries
3
No
102
Pérez-Ruzafa A, Marcos C, García-Charton J A and Salas F. 2008. European marine protected areas (MPAs) as tools for fisheries management and conservation. Editorial. Journal for Nature Conservation, Volume 16, Issue 4. 187-192pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GJ6-4TY3Y0X-5&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=97df43f93ab1bcca91f
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
MPA,Fisheries Management,Conservation
3
No
103
Sanchirico J N, Cochran K A, and Emerson P M. 2002. Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications. Discussion Paper 02–26 in Resources for the Future. 27p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-02-26.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper is a guide for citizens, scientists, resource managers, and policy makers, who are interested in understanding the economic and social value of marine protected areas (MPAs). We discuss the potential benefits and costs associated with MPAs as a means of illustrating the economic and social tradeoffs inherent in implementation decisions. In general, the effectiveness of a protected area depends on a complex set of interactions between biological, economic, and institutional factors. While MPAs might provide protection for critical habitats and cultural
heritage sites and, in some cases, conserve biodiversity, as a tool to enhance fishery management
their impact is less certain. The uncertainty stems from the fact that MPAs only treat the symptoms and not the fundamental causes of overfishing and waste in fisheries.
MPA
3
No
104
Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation. 2008. Marine Protected Areas: Classification, Protection Standard and Implementation Guidelines. Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. 54p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.biodiversity.govt.nz/pdfs/seas/MPA-classification-protection-standard.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Oceania
MPA
3
No
105
Mannigel E. 2008. Integrating Parks and People: How Does Participation Work in Protected Area Management? Society & Natural Resources, 21:6. 498-511pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Participation is increasingly seen as a tool to promote integration of protected areas and local stakeholders,minimizing existing conflicts and negative impacts on the areas. Until now, research has been conducted mostly to demonstrate that lack of involvement promotes conflict, or that participation does not result in long term changes. In this study a theoretical framework is developed to characterize different levels of participation in protected area management. Different perceptions of ideal participation levels are investigated and compared with levels of participation found in three different protected areas in the Mata Atlantica region of Brazil. Differences were more pronounced among four distinct groups of stakeholders than among the three areas. Factors favoring participation in conflict-prone settings were analyzed and individual factors important during the initiation of the process were identified. Social and institutional factors were found to become more important as the active involvement of local stakeholders increased.
Latin America
Conservation,Biodiversity,Brazil
3
No
106
Pretty J and Smith D. 2004. Social Capital in Biodiversity Conservation and Management. Conservation Biology, Volume 18, No. 3. 631–638pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The knowledge and values of local communities are now being acknowledged as valuable for biodiversity conservation. Relationships of trust, reciprocity and exchange, common rules, norms and sanctions, and connectedness in groups are what make up social capital, which is a necessary resource for shaping individual action to achieve positive biodiversity outcomes. Agricultural and rural conservation programs address biodiversity at three levels: agrobiodiversity on farms, nearby nature in landscapes, and protected areas. Recent initiatives that have sought to build social capital have shown that rural people can improve their understanding of biodiversity and agroecological relationships at the same time as they develop new social rules, norms, and institutions. This process of social learning helps new ideas to spread and can lead to positive biodiversity outcomes over large areas. New ideas spread more rapidly where there is high social capital. There remain many practical and policy difficulties, however, not least regarding the need to invest in social capital formation and the many unresolved questions of how the state views communities empowered to make their own decisions. Nonetheless, attention to the value of social relations, in the form of trust, reciprocal arrangements, locally developed rules, norms and sanctions, and emergent institutions, has clearly been shown to deliver a biodiversity dividend in many contexts. This suggests a need to blend both the biological and social elements of conservation.
Conservation,Biodiversity
3
No
107
Charles, A and Lisette Wilson. 2009. Human dimensions of marine protected areas. International Journal of Marine Science. Vol 66 (1): 6-15
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Planning, implementing, and managing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) requires that attention be paid not only to the biological and oceanographic issues that influence the performance of the MPA, but equally to the human dimensions: social, economic, and institutional considerations that can dramatically affect the outcome of MPA implementation. This paper explores ten human dimensions that are basic to the acceptance and ultimate success of MPAs: objectives and attitudes, "entry points" for introducing MPAs, attachment to place, meaningful participation, effective governance, the "people side" of knowledge, the role of rights, concerns about displacement, MPA costs and benefits, and the bigger picture around MPAs. These people-orientated factors and their impact on the success and effectiveness of MPAs are examined in relation to experiences with MPAs globally, and in relation to two Canadian examples specifically, one coastal (Eastport, Newfoundland) and the other offshore (the Gully, Nova Scotia).
N. America
MPA,Participation,Governance
4
No
108
IUCN 2008. Implementing the CBD PoWPA. Parks Magazine 17.1. November 2008
newsletters
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/parks17_1_web.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas is more than just a set of demands. It is a framework for co-operation between governments, donors, NGOs and local people. Over 50 countries are involved in multi-stakeholder co-ordination mechanisms to support PoWPA implementation. Whether this co-operation takes places at the national or regional level is probably less important than the fact that co-operation is taking place at all. Although there is still a huge amount to be done, this review suggests that despite emerging at a fairly inauspicious time for conservation, PoWPA has indeed galvanised action and co-operation on protected areas throughout the world
World
Protected Areas,CBD
3
No
109
Jones. P.J.S.2009. Equity, justice, and power issues raised by no-take marine protected area proposals. Marine Policy. Volume 33 (5): 759-765
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
In the face of growing calls for no-take marine protected areas (NTMPAs) and the development of a UK legal framework for them, fishing industry and related perspectives on the equity, justice and power issues raised by such designations are explored. Whilst these reveal growing concerns about the political and geographical marginalisation of the fishing industry, they also reveal a significant potential for the constructive participation of industry representatives in discussions and decisions concerning NTMPAs. These findings support the argument that this potential should be realised, as the environmental coherence of our seas need not be achieved through the social and economic isolation of our fishing industry.
Europe
Governance,Participation,MPA,No-take Zones
3
No
110
Hoffmann, David.M. 2009. Institutional legitimacy and co-management of a marine protected area: Implementation lessons from the case of Xcalak reefs national park, Mexico. Human Organization (68): 39-54
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Latin America
MPA,Co-management
3
No
111
Gray, Noella. J. and Lisa M. Campbell. 2009. Science, policy advocacy, and marine protected areas. Conservation Biology (23): 460-468
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
World
MPA,Policy
3
No
112
Gerhardinger, Leopoldo.C., Eduardo A.S.Godoy, and Peter J.S.Jones. 2009. Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean and Coastal Management. (52): 154-165
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Latin America
MPA,Traditional Knowledge,Policy
3
No
113
Weigand, Ronaldo. 2003. The social context of participation: Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and the creation of a marine protected area in Bahia, Brazil. Disseration presented to the Gradual School of University of Florida
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Latin America
MPA,Participatory Management,Extractive Reserves
4
No
114
Cinner, J., M. M. P. B. Fuentes, and H. Randriamahazo. 2009. Exploring social resilience in Madagascar’s marine protected areas. Ecology and Society 14(1): 41.
newsletters
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art41/
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper examines and compares aspects of local-level resilience in 13 coastal communities within and adjacent to all of Madagascar’s national marine protected areas. The examination of social resilience focuses on indicators of the flexibility of household livelihood portfolios and both formal and informal governance institutions, the capacity of communities to organize, their capacity to learn, and access to household assets and community infrastructure. In general, high levels of flexibility were found in formal institutions and livelihood portfolios and high levels of participation in decision-making and community groups. Together, these indicators suggest some latent capacity to adaptively manage resources, but this capacity may be offset by poor levels of trust between communities and resource managers, a poor understanding of the ways in which humans affect marine resources, inadequate feedback of ecological monitoring to communities, inflexibility in informal governance institutions, and a lack of assets to draw upon. The paper suggests that building desirable resilience in Madagascar’s marine protected areas will require the following: investments in community-level infrastructure, projects to generate household income, and enhanced agricultural production to improve the well-being of communities; improvements in the capacity to learn through investments in formal and informal education; enhanced trust between park staff and local communities; empowerment of communities to govern and enforce natural resources; the increased accountability of leaders and transparency of governance processes; adequate cross-scale interaction with local, provincial, and national institutions; and the pursuit of these activities in ways that capitalize on community-specific strengths, such as high flexibility and the presence of sociocultural institutions such as taboos that regulate resource use.
Africa
MPA,Participation
3
No
115
R D Sagarin and L B Crowder. 2008. Breaking through the Crisis in Marine Conservation and Management: Insights from the Philosophies of Ed Ricketts. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 1. 24–30pp.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Over the last decade, two major U.S. commissions on ocean policy and a wide range of independent sources have argued that ocean ecosystems are in a period of crisis and that current policies are inadequate to prevent further ecological damage. These sources have advocated ecosystem-based management as an approach to address conservation issues in the oceans, but managers remain uncertain as to how to implement ecosystem-based approaches in the real world. We argue that the philosophies of Edward F. Ricketts, a mid-20th-century marine ecologist, offer a framework and clear guidance for taking an ecosystem approach to marine conservation. Ricketts’ philosophies, which were grounded in basic observations of natural history, espoused building a holistic picture of the natural world, including the influence of humans, through repeated observation. This approach, when applied to conservation, grounds management in what is observable in nature, encourages early action in the face of uncertainty, and supports an adaptive approach to management as new information becomes available. Ricketts’ philosophy of “breaking through,” which focuses on getting beyond crisis and conflict through honest debate of different parties’ needs (rather than forcing compromise of differing positions), emphasizes the social dimension of natural resource management. New observational technologies, long-term ecological data sets, and especially advances in the social sciences made available since Ricketts’ time greatly enhance the utility of Ricketts’ philosophy of marine conservation.
N. America
Ecosystem Based Management,Conservation
3
No
116
WWF and SPREP. 2009. Status And Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Widespread Implementation of LMMAs
books
http://www.sprep.org/att/publication/000646_LMMA_report.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
The report analyzes locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the South Pacific, including their contributions to integrated island management. The report provides a regional inventory of community-run
management areas and describes how they can help address the challenges South Pacific nations face, such as climate change and rapid population growth. The authors offer several recommendations for LMMA management, including that traditional tenure and governance systems be respected and that integrated island management serve as the primary goal rather than simply designating protected areas. The geographic area covered by the report includes the countries or territories of Papua New Guinea, Fiji,
Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, French Polynesia, Samoa, Tonga, American Samoa, Wallis and Futuna, Cook Islands, Tuvalu, Niue, and Tokelau.
Oceania
MPA,Marine Resources Conservation
4
No
117
Jentoft, Svein; Ratana Chuenpagdee and Jose J.Pascual-Fernandez. 2011. What are MPAs for: On goal formation and displacement. Ocean & Coastal Management (54): 75-83.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are established for various purposes. Some are aimed at protection, some are intended as resource management tools, while others imply both of these objectives, as well as others. Regardless of the stated goals, the same MPA can mean different things to different people, and these meanings may be inconsistent. In practice, MPA goals are not always stated clearly, and even if they are, they do not necessary align well with what the different actors have in mind. Moreover, the stated goals are not always those that govern the actual operation of MPAs. The priorities of goals may also change over time for stakeholders and for MPAs. In this paper we argue that the goals of MPAs should not be assumed a priori but should be researched empirically. Thus, before we can answer why MPAs succeed or fail in reaching their goals, we must ask what these goals are in the first place and how they came into existence. How are they, for instance, established, negotiated and agreed upon among stakeholders? How do they reflect particular interests, perspectives and power differentials of those involved? Here, this paper provides a framework for how to analyze the formation, complexity, and displacement of goals in MPAs, presenting three case studies as illustration.
World
MPA,Social Issues,Governance,Displacement
5
No
118
Jones, Peter J.S; Wanfei Qiu and Elizabeth De Santo. 2011. Governing marine protected areas: Getting the balance right. UCL, Dalhousie University and UNEP. 124p.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Whilst there is currently much guidance available on how to manage marine protected areas (MPAs), there is less guidance available that considers MPAs from a governance perspective. This perspective poses a key question – how do we combine top-down, bottom-up and market approaches for reaching and implementing decisions in order to achieve effective and equitable MPAs? It is widely accepted that all three approaches are important, but how might they be combined in different MPA contexts?

The need to address this question has led to a new partnership amongst a group of governance experts and MPA planners and managers to initiate development of guidance on governing MPAs in seas under national jurisdiction. Initial steps have included an international workshop supported by UNEP bringing together 20 MPA case studies from different regions around the world and different settings, and subjecting them to detailed analysis employing a governance analysis framework developed by Dr. Peter Jones, plus subsequent analysis of the findings and preparation of this report. The MPA case study analyses were focused on ‘deconstructing’ the complexities of MPA governance by employing 40 incentives from five categories. This technical report describes the findings of this research and is intended to provide a foundation for further case studies and discussion, employing the governance analysis framework, to provide a preliminary resource for MPA managers to consider how different incentives might be combined to support the governance of their MPA. It also resonates strongly with current debates in fisheries management about the role of incentives.
World
MPA,Governance,Social Issues
5
No
119
Lucas, Devin L. and Jennifer M. Lincoln. 2010. The impact of marine preserve areas on the safety of fishermen on Guam. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
Documents and Reports
http://www.wpcouncil.org/news/Press/2011/NIOSH%20Report%20on%20Guam%20Fishermen%20Safety.pdf
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
For Chamorro fishermen, the risk of drowning more than doubled after MPAs were enforced. Non-Chamorro fishermen experienced a sharp decrease in the risk of drowning after MPAs were established. Greater exposure to a high risk environment, as evidenced by the shift in location of drowning deaths among Chamorro fishermen, may explain the increase in the drowning rates post MPAs.
Oceania
MPA,Fishermen,Safety at Sea
5
No
120
Siddiqui; Pirzada J.A.; Sumera Farooq; Seema Shafique; Zaib-un-Nisa Burhan and Zafar Farooqi. 2008. Conservation and management of biodiversity in Pakistan through the establishment of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management (51): 377-382
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine protected area (MPA) is an area in the coastal zone of land or sea specially dedicated to protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. In this paper a need for designating MPAs in Pakistan is presented on the basis of case studies on mangroves and its ecosystem, corals and coral reef fishes, marine turtles, whales and dolphins, and planktons and pelagic environment. This paper reflects that there are a number of species and habitat that require conservation and for this purpose designation of marine protected areas along the coast of Pakistan is inevitable. MPAs would ensure better management of marine ecosystem and environment. This is also linked with the economic and social stability provided by the sustainable use of resources. The need is also in line with commitment of the Government of Pakistan under the International Biodiversity Convention to establish MPAs in Pakistan. At least nine sites are identified as potential candidates for MPAs. Some of which have more than one important commodity that needs to be preserved. Three main sites suggested for immediate designation of MPA are Indus Delta, Astola Island and Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay).
Asia
MPA,Conservation
3
No
121
Batista, Marisa I.; Filipa Baeta; Maria J. Costa and Henrique N. Cabral. 2011. MPA as management tools for small-scale fisheries: The case study of Arrabida Marine Protected Area (Portugal). Ocean & Coastal Management (54): 137-147
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
In this study, a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of MPA as a small-scale fisheries management tool was developed, based on a set of indicators grouped in four dimensions (ecological, economic, social and management and governance). The indicators were scored individually according to an original score scale of five values and a median score was calculated for every dimension. Finally, the median overall score was calculated including the scores of the four dimensions. The scores were attributed for two distinct periods: before and after MPA implementation, in order to evaluate the performance of MPA. This methodology can be applied even with few scientific data available and taking into account experts and stakeholders’ judgements. The Arrábida MPA (Portugal) was used as a case study and it was found that with the implementation of the MPA social and economical aspects were impaired (median scores decreased near one value for the period after MPA implementation), while the other two dimensions showed an improvement trend. Thus, the overall score was the same before and after MPA implementation, an intermediate scale score. Results from the application of this method can give important indications about the state of an MPA and evaluate if the initial goals are being achieved through the implemented measures. The method is of easy communication and can be a useful tool for decision making and fisheries management processes.
World
MPA,Social Issues,Small Scale Fisheries
3
No
122
Chircop, Aldo , Francis, Julius , Van Der Elst, Rudy , Pacule, Hermes , Guerreiro, José , Grilo, Catarina and Carneiro, Gonçalo(2010) 'Governance of Marine Protected Areas in East Africa: A Comparative Study of Mozambique, South Africa, and Tanzania', Ocean Development & International Law, 41: 1, 1 — 33
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This article undertakes a comparative discussion of
the domestic governance frameworks of Mozambique, South Africa, and Tanzania in
view of the efforts of these three states to scale up their MPA cooperation in the East African Marine Ecoregion (EAME) to include MPA networks, including transboundary MPAs. Although on many issues there appears to be regional solidarity and convergence on principles, including participatory processes and decision making to guide MPA making, there are significant differences on lead roles, institutional structures, access to public information, and conflict management, among others, which would need to be factored in MPA cooperation. Other important factors for regional MPA cooperation include policy directions on shared concerns such as conservation and development values with emphasis on equitable resource use and poverty alleviation.
Africa
MPA,Governance,Conflict Management
4
No
123
Gaspar, Anselmo Cesar. 2008. Local people's perceptions of marine protected areas: A case study of Ponta Do Ouro, Mozambique. University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Documents and Reports
http://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10413/338/AnselmoThesisFinal.pdf?sequence=1
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Marine protected areas (MPAs) cannot be managed outside the context of human societies that are dependent on their associated ecosystems and resources. This means that local people’s perceptions need to be considered in the establishment of MPAs as well as their subsequent management, planning and decision making processes. Accordingly, this study investigated respondents’ perceptions of the Ponta do Ouro – Kosi Bay MPA. The MPA is part of the now proclaimed Lubombo Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA). An interviewer - administered questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from 35 respondents, all resident in the study area and who are involved in various activities based on the coastal area and its marine resources. The focus of the study was on awareness regarding the establishment, impacts of the MPA, the setting of priorities for the MPA and lastly, respondents’ roles and responsibilities The findings from the study reveal low levels of awareness of the establishment of the MPA among respondents, although there was acknowledgement of its potential contribution to biodiversity conservation. Various types of impacts of the establishment of the MPA were noted. The establishment of the MPA was perceived to negatively impact on the access to, and use of, marine resources. It was also felt that the MPA would impact on the exercise of traditional authority.
Africa
MPA,Social Issues,Governance
4
No
124
Govan, Hugh; Alifereti Tawake and Kesaia Tabunakawai. 2006. Community-based marine resource management in the South Pacific. PARKS (16): 63-67.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Approaches to conservation and fisheries management often promoted at a global level have had little impact in the South Pacific, due to the special situation of these island nations. Community-based management of marine resources based on traditional and modern knowledge and developed at a local level seems to be the way forward. The close relationship that Pacific Island peoples have developed with the ocean over millennia is a key part of the region’s rich culture. Despite the erosion of both cultural and natural resources in recent decades, the capacity and knowledge of coastal communities appear to provide the fundamental pillar for achieving sustainable livelihoods from the sea. Partnerships between communities, non governmental organisations (NGOs) and governments are an important mechanism but it is essential that the aspirations of communities are treated as the main driving force for this type of
management and that their legal or de facto rights over resources are respected.
Oceania
MPA,Community Based Management,Social Issues
4
No
125
Capistrano, Robert Charles. G. 2010. Reclaiming the ancestral waters of indigenous peoples in the Philippines: The Tagbanua experience with fishing rights and indigenous rights. Marine Policy (34): 453-460.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This paper discusses the impact of local and national policies in the Philippines on the participation of indigenous peoples in relation to fisheries management. Specifically, this research focuses on the Tagbanua, an indigenous group in Coron Island, Palawan, on the western side of the Philippines. The
struggle of the Tagbanua in reclaiming their ancestral title to the land and sea reflects broader moves toward self-determination, which is critical not only to their ancestral lands and waters, but also to their
survival. Indigenous rights are essential in addressing social justice and in giving a greater voice that encourages indigenous peoples towards self-governing institutions and common management of resources. Significantly, the fundamental development of indigenous peoples lies in the recognition of their rights in their ancestral domain and the preservation of their culture, tradition, system, practices and their natural resources. This paper examines the Tagbanua experience, through a critical exploration of institutions and property rights, with attention to corresponding effects in reducing conflict with other stakeholders in the area, and in affecting the sustainability of fishery resources.
Asia
Fishing Rights,Indigenous People
5
No
126
Almudi, Tiago and Daniel Coswig Kalikoski. 2010. Traditional fisherfolk and no-take protected areas: The Piexe Lagoon National Park Dilemma. Ocean & Coastal Management (53): 225-233.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This study challenges the ‘National Park’ as the appropriate management model for the Peixe Lagoon area in southern Brazil through an investigation of local fisherfolk livelihoods and traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that top-down management policies implemented through a non-participatory process, which have resulted in conflict between government officials and fisherfolk, disregarded the
fisherfolk’s cultural practices and particular knowledge, thereby violating their rights as traditional people. Multiple suggestions are provided to achieve environmental conservation schemes without compromising the local traditional fishing livelihoods.
Latin America
MPA,Social Issues,Traditional Fisheries,Traditional Communities
5
No
127
Almudi, Tiago and Fikret Berkes. 2010. Barriers to empowerment: fighting eviction for conservation in a southern Brazilian Protected Area. Local Environment. Vol. 15, No.3. 217-232 p.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
How do nation states accommodate people who live in regions declared as protected areas (PAs)? In Brazil’s Peixe Lagoon National Park, established in 1986, eviction of fisher communities has been occurring gradually through license non-renewal and ill- treatment of fishers by Parks authorities. We examined fishers’ interactions with other groups and the role of partnerships and linkages in fighting for fishing rights. Results show that the new national law on PAs (SNUC) approved in 2000 could be used to
enable this particular group of fishers to safeguard their culture and livelihoods. However, fishers and their representatives considered themselves weak and
disempowered. Existing partnerships were sufficient to fight eviction in the short term, but not to safeguard resource access rights in the long term. We identified
obstacles to empowerment in the form of “missing linkages” and institutions, specifically with respect to service and support functions to build capacity to defend rights to remain physically within the park and politically in the conservation process.
Latin America
MPA,Fishing Communities,Displacement
5
No
128
Gallardo, Daniela Barguil. 2009. Coastal artisanal fisheries and community conservation in Costa Rica. Masters Thesis (Environment and Sustainable Development). International Institute of Social Studies. The Hague, Netherlands. 51p.
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
This research paper studies an initiative of community-conservation in an artisanal fishery on the Pacific of Costa Rica. The case-study is linked with the wider history and situation of conservation and development in Costa Rica in order to understand the context in which it is embedded.
The case of the Community-based Marine Area of Responsible Artisanal Fishing of Tárcoles (MARAFT), in the light of its context, conceptualization elements and process of recognition, is analysed focusing on the issues of the politics of conservation, natural resource management and development that an initiative of community conservation entails and pretends to transform.
Latin America
MPA,Artisanal Fisheries,Community Based Management
5
No
129
Glaser, Marion; Wasistini Baitoningsih; Sebastian C.A.Ferse; Muhammad Neil; Rio Deswandi. 2010. Whose sustainability? Top-down participation and emergent rules in marine protected area management in Indonesia. Marine Policy (34): 1215-1225.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
A review of a major community-based marine protected area programme (CB-MPA) in an Indonesian island archipelago is the point of departure for this article. Despite a well-designed institutional structure to facilitate local participation, local knowledge about the CB-MPA is found to be low and resource access and influence on decision-making in the programme is negligible for the majority of islanders. At the same time, most of those who know about the programme consider it as pertaining to the public authority only. These findings stand in contrast to evidence on non-formal ways of protecting and managing marine areas in the same geographical area but outside the formal MPA institutiona framework. In particular, the article identifies a number of emergent rules-in-use in marine management, which operate parallel to legally established MPAs. It is argued that emergent forms of marine area protection such as non-formal self-organising island exclusion zones (IEZ) offer as yet mostly unused potentials for formal MPA development, particularly in those coastal and marine area without traditional forms of marine and coastal management.
Asia
Social Issues,MPA,Local Communities
5
No
130
McClanahan, T.R; J.Cinner; A.T.Kamukuru; C. Abunge and J. Ndagala. 2009. Management preferences, perceived benefits and conflicts among resource users and managers in the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation (35): 340-350.
newsletters
Social Issues in MPAs N/a
Conflicts between resource users and managers
are common and well documented on Mafia Island (Tanzania), where there has been a history of unresolved conflict over marine conservtion
initiatives. The perceptions of fisheries and park restrictions among resource users and managers were evaluated to try to understand the underlying causes of these conflicts. Responses concerning management preferences of government officials employed by the
Mafia Island Marine Park (MIMP), personnel of
the fisheries department, and heads of households in three villages in and out of the Park were compared. The largest differences in perceptions were found between villagers and managers, but all respondents agreed thatminimumfish lengths and gear restrictions were beneficial and that benefits increased along the scale of the individual – community – national government. Villagers and government officials differed most in their perceptions towards area-based management, spatial and temporal closures,
and species restrictions. Perceptions of management restrictions and benefits were only weakly correlated with the socioeconomic status of the villagers, but more strongly correlated with their living in or out of the Park and their family’s economic options. The most negative perceptions towards restrictions were found in villages near fisheries closures, where there was a heavy reliance on marine resources and a higher numbers of jobs per household, but less reliance on cash crops, animal husbandry and tourism. The
lack of these three options appears to have produced lower levels of support for MIMP and associated restrictions, and might be overcome by (1) using gear and minimum size restrictions more than fisheries closures and (2) increasing access to tourism, cash crops, animal husbandry and salaried employment, rather than simply increasing livelihood diversity.
Africa
MPA,Social Issues
5
No
131
Chuenpagdee, Ratana, Jose J.Pascual-Fernandez, Emese Szelianszky, Juan Luis Alegret, Julia Fraga, Svein Jentoft, Marine protected areas: Re-thinking their inception. Marine Policy 39 (2013) 234–240
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Spain
When marine protected areas (MPAs) do not succeed, which is often the case, their failure is mostly attributed to factors related to their design and operation. In this paper, it is argued that reasons for lack of success must be sought in the process that leads upto their establishment, i.e., the initial stage when the idea was conceived, communicated, and discussed among stakeholders. To illustrate the significance of the ‘step zero’, the creation of four MPAs in Spain and Mexico is analyzed. These case studies show how MPA proposals can easily be drawn not only into power struggles between stakeholders but also into political issues that extend far beyond the MPA itself. For this reason, the governance of MPAs requires broad considerations of the potential political risks and pitfalls. MPAs are, after all, not just a technical management measure, but a socio-political enterprise.
Europe,Central America
Stakeholders,Socio-economic Aspects,Politics,MPA,Coastal resources management
5
No
132
Hamilton, Mark. Perceptions of fishermen towards marine protected areas in Cambodia and the Philippines. BioscienceHorizons 5 (2012) 1-24. DOI: 10.1093/biohorizons/hzs007
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Right to Resources,Community based management Philippines
Marine protected areas (MPAs) can be used to conserve parts of marine ecosystems, including fish stocks exploited by fisheries. Social acceptance of MPAs must be achieved if they are to function as effective management tools. Artisanal fishers operating around tropical coral reef areas were questioned in an attempt to investigate their acceptance and perceptions of MPAs. Fishers from two areas were surveyed: Koh Rong Island, Cambodia, where MPAs are a new concept to fishers, and Southern Leyte, the Philippines, where MPAs have been used in management for over 10 years. Fishers’ opinions of MPAs from each study site were compared and variables affecting fishers’ opinions of MPAs were also investigated at each site. Although small sample sizes of fishers were observed at each study site, results showed that the majority of fishers at each site accepted MPAs as a management tool. Cambodian fishers felt the state of marine resources had worsened in the past decade (with regards to the number of fish, the size of fish and the number of species present in their catch), whereas most Filipino fishers had noticed an opposite trend. Older Cambodian fishers had greater acceptance of MPAs; age did not affect Filipino fishers’ acceptance, and did not affect any other opinions fishers had of MPAs at either site. Community-based management of MPAs was fishers’ preference at both sites. The study shows evidence of MPA support in Cambodia, with mobile gear users being more willing to be involved in MPA management. Most Filipino fishers felt that their MPA improved their catches, although there was evidence of conflict between fishers since the MPA was implemented.
Asia
MPA,Marine Resources Conservation,Marine Resources,Local Communities,Coral Reefs,Conflicts,Artisanal Fisheries
5
No
133
Bottema, Mariska J.M. and Simon R. Bush. The durability of private sector-led marine conservation: A case study of two entrepreneurial marine protected areas in Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management 61 (2012) 38-48. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.01.004
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Indonesia
This paper investigates the durability of entrepreneurial marine protected areas (EMPAs) by exploring the role of the private sector in marine conservation. Set within a wider set of social science questions around the marine protected areas as negotiated interventions, we focus on whether and how tourism entrepreneurs can instill a long-term vision for marine conservation, funding and management, thereby overcoming commonly cited implementation and enforcement failures in state-led marine parks. The analysis is based on an empirical comparison of the Yayasan Karang Lestari coral restoration project in Pemuteran on the Northwest coast of Bali, and the marine tourism park around the island of Gili Trawangan off the west coast of Lombok in Indonesia. Our results show that the private sector is able to increase awareness of conservation amongst tourists and coastal communities, provide new income alternatives, and provide financial capacity to support marine conservation activities. It does not, however, appear to have the capacity to create durable, institutionalised arrangements without state support. These findings feed into a wider discussion on the formation of EMPAs, the role of alternative organisational structures and technologies in facilitating change in coastal areas, and how traditionally economic concepts such as entrepreneurship can contribute to a wider understanding of marine conservation governance.
Asia
Tourism,Private Sector,MPA,Income,Conservation,Coastal Communities
4
No
134
Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. , Heidi J. Albers, and Stephen L . Kirama. The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas An Example from Tanzania. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series. Feb 2012.
Documents and Reports
www.efdinitiative.org
Social Issues in MPAs Madagascar
Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in resource-dependent households’ incentives to fish. With Tanzania‘s Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and its internal villages as an example, we use an economic decision modeling framework as a lens to examine incentives, reaction to incentives, and implications for sustainable MPA management created by park managers‘ use of enforcement (sticks) and livelihood projects (carrots). We emphasize practical implementation issues faced by MBREMP managers and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability in a poor country setting
Africa
MPA,Marine Reserves,Madagascar,Livelihood,Enforcement
5
No
135
Leleu, Kevin, Frederique Alban, Dominique Pelletier, Eric Charbonnel, Yves Letourneur, Charles F. Boudouresque. Fishers' perceptions as indicators of the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Marine Policy36(2012)414–422. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.06.002
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs France
How users perceive the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is fundamental for the social
acceptance of these zones. Moreover, their perceptions may be relevant for monitoring the effects of MPAs on extractive activities. This study analyzes artisanal fishers' perceptions of the performance of a north-western Mediterranean coastal MPA, which encompasses two no-take zones (NTZs). Three viewpoints have been considered: the effect on the personal activity of fishers, the effect on the local fishery and the effect on the ecosystem. In order to test the hypothesis that biomass export (spillover) – which had previously been evidenced from the two NTZs – may influence fishers' perceptions of NTZ effects, fishers' perceptions were compared with both declared and observed fishing activity over an one-year period. The results show that negative perceptions of NTZs are either nil or are negligible. Most fishers are aware of the beneficial effects of NTZs on ecosystems and fisheries. However, they remain to be convinced of the beneficial effects of the NTZs on their own activity. For instance, the proximity of a NTZ appears never to be involved in the choice of a fishing spot. This partial lack of correspondence between scientific expectation and fishers' perceptions is discussed in the light of fishing habits in the zone adjacent to NTZs, and takes into account fishing grounds, targeted species and seniority (defined as the number of years the fisher has been fishing within the MPA). All three factors appear to influence fishers' perceptions. For example, having a positive perception about a NTZ and spending more time fishing in the adjacent zone are habits that can be associated with fishers with less seniority. Fishers' perceptions obviously indicate the social acceptance of the MPA and are an essential monitoring tool for MPA managers. However, perceptions cannot be seen as a substitute for scientific monitoring, as both approaches are clearly complementary.
Europe
Social Issues,No-take Zones,MPA,Artisanal Fisheries
5
No
136
Di Ciommo, Regina C. and Alexandre Schiavetti. Women participation in the management of a Marine Protected Area in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management 62 (2012) 15e23. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.02.010
Documents and Reports
Women and Resources Management,Social Issues in MPAs,Role of Women Brazil
The Marine Extractive Reserve Corumbau, a MPA unit, was created for the sustainable use of fishing
resources. The exclusive right over resources requires that its population of fishermen and fisherwomen have consistent and equitable participation in the decision-making for an effective co-management. This research considers the importance of incorporating women’s experiences and knowledge in the MPA management. We aimed to know the working conditions of women involved in fishing at the Corumbau MPA and reasons that affect their participation in management and decision-making. We have heard fisherwomen and shellfish collectors of three communities, during two consecutive years, through interviews and participative observations. Women’s participation in meetings of MERC is limited and hampered by factors related to gender, unmet expectations, lack of information. The dynamics of the meetings and the decision-making process need to address specific women’s needs and priorities, with gender sensitive measures. Increasing women’s rights at MERC and hearing their voices could lead to significant impacts on personal and collective levels, benefiting the communities as a whole. Measures directed to inform, motivate and support them could increase their degree of confidence in comanagement and increase their participation, with positive reflections on conservation and socioeconomical conditions.
Latin America
Women,Participatory Management,MPA,Extractive Reserves
1
No
137
Thu Van Trung Ho, Alison Cottrell, Peter Valentine and Simon Woodley. Perceived barriers to effective multilevel governance of human-natural systems: an analysis of Marine Protected Areas in Vietnam. Journal of Political Ecology19 (2012): 17-35
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Vietnam
This study of multilevel governance in contemporary Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Vietnam used a qualitative methodology to identify the factors that cause fragmentation of governance structures, leading to ineffective management and governance of these MPAs. These factors relate to formal institutions, socio-economic conditions and social capital. The study reveals different barriers to effective governance at different levels. Socio-economic conditions affect the participation of local communities, whereas formal institutional arrangements are major barriers to the collaboration between state-actors across sectors. Mutual trust, communication and reciprocity may nurture and foster participation and collaboration by actors in the multilevel governance of MPAs. The article stresses the importance of social capital in multilevel governance of human-natural systems. It concludes that the existing institutional structure of MPAs may require reforms to achieve more effective governance and to meet the overall goals of the national MPA network.
Asia
Vietnam,Socio-economic Aspects,MPA,Governance
4
No
138
Walker, Barbara Louise Endemano and Michael A. Robinson. Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon. Gender, Place & Culture. 16 (2009)4:467 — 484. DOI: 10.1080/09663690903003983
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Right to Resources French Polynesia
This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the data provides new information about the characteristics of fishing in Moorea. Unlike most fishing cultures and communities throughout the Pacific Islands, men and women in Moorea have similar, as opposed to segregated, spatial patterns of fishing activities and fishing methods. The study also points out the potential negative impacts of the MPAs on both men and women, particularly younger and lower-income fishers.
Australia/Oceania
Women,MPA,GIS,Gender,Access Rights
5
No
139
Weeks, Rebecca, Garry R. Russ, Abner A. Bucol and Angel C. Alcala. Incorporating local tenure in the systematic design of marine protected area networks. Conservation Letters 3 (2010) 445–453 doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00131.x
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Philippines
Although the importance of socioeconomic factors in conservation planning is increasingly recognized, there are few examples demonstrating how such factors can be practically incorporated into the design of protected area networks. Here, we illustrate how spatial zoning software can be used to consider local marine tenure explicitly in the design of marine protected area (MPA) networks, using a case study from the Philippines. By stipulating the minimum area of fishing grounds that must remain open to each local fishing community, we were able to design MPA networks that impacted local resource users more equitably and were therefore more likely to be socioeconomically viable. MPA networks that considered local tenure boundaries had a greater overall area and cost than those that sought to minimize costs to small-scale fishers as a single stakeholder group. However, in this context, established concepts of “efficiency” in conservation planning are likely to be less important than minimizing costs to each fishing community individually.
Asia
Tenure and Use,MPA,conservation network
4
No
140
Marinesque, Sophie, David M.Kaplan and Lynda D.Rodwell. Global implementation of marine protected areas: Is the developing world being left behind? Marine Policy36(2012)727–737. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.10.010
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs World
While the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) has recently been evaluated in the light of bio-geographic targets, there has been no attempt to evaluate the relative conservation efforts made by the different nations with regards to their level of socio-economic development. Using information mostly gathered from the world database on protected areas (WDPA), this paper gives a comparative assessment of MPA progress in countries from different economic categories, ranging from advanced economies to least developed countries (LDCs). Potentially explanatory socio-economic and environ- mental factors, such as fishing activity and existence of vulnerable marine ecosystems, for variability between nations in the level of MPA implementation are also explored.
World
Developing Countries,MPA
4
No
141
Bown, Natalie, Tim Gray and Selina M. Stead. Contested forms of governance in marine protected areas: a study of co-management and adaptive co-management. Routledge, 2013, pp. xii + 200.
books
Co-management,Social Issues in MPAs Honduras
This book is about the governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). In particular it is about two forms of governance – co-management (CM) and adaptive co-management (ACM) – which, we argue, have been applied to the Cayos Cochinos Marine Protected Area (CCMPA) in Honduras by means of two successive management plans in 2004-9 and 2008-13 respectively. The distinctive feature of CM is that it incorporates the governed as well as the government in the decision-making process and decentralizes decision-making to include the users. The distinctive feature of ACM is an active and dynamic process whereby the decision making process is continuously responsive, through learning processes, to the changing ecological and socio-economic circumstances within the social-ecological system. An extensive and critical analysis of the concepts of CM, AM and ACM, and their relationships to each other, is carried out in this book before being applied to the case study of the CCMPA. When examining the two modes of governance of the CCMPA, the book investigates, first, how far they met the three main objectives of ecological health, socio-economic well being, and good governance; and second, to what extent the first management plan fulfilled the criteria of co-management, and the second management plan fulfilled the idea of adaptive co-management.
Central America
Co-management,Adaptive management,Decision Making,MPA
5
No
142
Department of Forests, Government of West Bengal. Protect Sunderbans.
books
Biodiversity,Social Issues in MPAs India
This booklet outlines the need and purpose of the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve in West Bengal, India. ‘Sunderabans’ the largest delta on globe in the estuarine phase of the river Ganges s a unique bioclimatic zone in a typical geographical situation in the coastal region of Bay of Bengal. The booklet contains information on the location, socio-economic status of people, administrative measures and projects being undertaken in the biosphere reserve region.
Asia
Subsistence Fisheries,Socio-economic Aspects,Biodiversity,MPA
3
No
143
Regpala, Ma Elena, Borromeo Motin and Grace T. Balawag. Philippine Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas: Review of Policy and Implementation. Tebtebba Foundation, 2010.
books
www.tebtebba.org
Social Issues in MPAs Philippines
This report examines whether Philippine national policies and actions have been changed to implement World Parks Congress in Durban (2003), Convention on Biodiversity COP 7 (2004) and 3rd World Conservation Congress (2005) decision and to see how these national policies have been implemented. This research was taken up because in recent history, protected areas were established without the knowledge or consent of indigenous people resulting in the displacement of indigenous people living in their ancestral territories and consequent impoverishment, suffering and conflicts. The study concluded that many of the issues and problems of indigenous peoples in protected areas arise from the non-recognition of their right to their ancestral domains and lands; self-governance and empowerment; social justice and human rights; and cultural integrity.
Asia
Traditional Communities,Rights,Governance,Human Rights,Socio-economic Aspects,Empowerment,Culture
4
No
144
Ervin, J. N. Sekhran, A. Dinu, S. Gidda, M. Vergeichik and J. Mee. 2010. Protected Areas for the 21st Century: Lessons from UNDP/GEF's Portfolio. New York: United Nations Development Programme and Montreal: Convention on Biological Diversity.
books
Social Issues in MPAs Cambodia
The report is based on case studies drawn largely from the portfolio of projects financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through the UN Development Programme (UNDP). An introductory section presents background on historical and evolving concepts of protected areas and their roles. The following sections of the report address eight key themes that are shaping protected areas management in the 21st Century, namely: enabling policy environments; management planning; protected area assessment and restoration; governance and participation; capacity and sustainable finance; protected area networks and ecological gap assessments; and connectivity corridors and transboundary protected areas. For each of the eight themes, the report presents a snapshot of the current status of implementation, a set of emerging best practices, and one or more case studies that illustrate innovative and successful approaches.
Asia,Latin America
Protected Areas,Policy,Governance,Participation,Chile,Cambodia
4
No
145
Weigel, J.Y.; Feral, F. & Cazalet, B., eds. Governance of marine protected areas in least-developed countries. Case studies from West Africa. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 548. Rome, FAO. 2011. 78 pp.
books
http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2378e/i2378e00.htm
Biodiversity,Fisheries Management,Social Issues in MPAs Guinea-Bissau
The need for effective governance of the marine protected areas (MPAs) in least developed countries (LDCs) is commensurate with the significant territorial stakes raised by their extensive maritime domain. Another significant challenge is the conservation of biodiversity and of ecosystems whose level of productivity is similar to that of coral reefs (e.g. in East Africa and Madagascar, the Red Sea, Maldives, Cambodia, and South Pacific islands), upwelling systems (e.g. in West Africa and Angola) and estuarine and delta ecosystems (e.g. in West and East Africa, Bangladesh and Myanmar). However, the overriding issue is to reconcile conservation and human presence as, in LDCs, human activities are tolerated in almost all MPAs covered by International Union for Conservation of Nature categories II–VI. Finally, issues related to identity claims and to the process of establishment of property and other legal entitlements on nature are gaining importance.
A review of the literature on fisheries and MPAs governance showed how polysemous and vague the notion of governance was until very recently and how few or oversimplified were the analyses of MPA governance in the LDCs. However, only detailed analyses would allow the characterization of governance systems and identification of their weaknesses with the view to suggesting new governance arrangements and appropriate public policy options. Such analytical deficiencies may be explained by the lack of analytical frameworks capable of taking into account the plurality and intricacy of socio-economic organizations and institutions, the sociocultural features and the role of new mediators and “development brokers” that shape MPA governance in the LDCs. The deficiencies may also be explained by the fact that the dominating hierarchical governance systems tend to underestimate the complexity of MPA governance systems.

Therefore, it has been necessary to develop an analytical framework to study the governance of MPAs in the LDCs, drawing on four sources of inspiration: (i) the interactive fisheries governance approach; (ii) the risk governance approach; (iii) the socioanthropology of mediations and brokerage; and (iv) the governance analytical framework. The framework indicates the five issues that must be addressed in order to operationalize the concept of governance in LDC MPAs: (i) definition of the problem or the issue at stake; (ii) identification of the set of relevant governance norms; (iii) presentation of the actors involved in the governance process; (iv) highlighting the nodes around which actors’ strategies converge; and (v) recalling the processes that have led to the current state of governance. This analytical framework makes it possible to characterize the governance system of each of the MPAs considered and to develop a typology of these systems. The characterization of different governance systems highlights their weaknesses and paves the way for new public policy options and, more generally, for the restructuring of governance to correct these weaknesses.

However, prior to the development of the analytical framework and the characterization of governance systems, the main MPA governance principles and constraints, as well their legal context, must be clarified. The whole methodology was tested on three West African coastal and marine protected areas, which seemed to provide textbook cases illustrating the difficulties of governance in LDCs: the Banc d’Arguin National Park in Mauritania, the Saloum Delta Biosphere Reserve in Senegal, and the Bolama Bijagos Archipelago Biosphere Reserve in Guinea- Bissau. The analysis of demographic and economic constraints in these West African MPAs showed the importance of: (i) increasing population density and mobility; (ii) the intensification of resource exploitation; and (iii) and the opening of the MPA economy. The analysis of the legal and institutional contexts showed the international inspiration of the MPA objectives and conservation arrangements, and the syncretism of the legal system.
Africa
MPA,Governance,Senegal,Mauritania
4
No
146
Sanders, J.S.; Greboval, D.; Hjort, A. (comp.) Marine protected areas: country case studies on policy, governance and institutional issues. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 556/1, Rome. FAO. 2011. 118p.
books
http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2191e/i2191e00.htm
Social Issues in MPAs Brazil
This document presents case studies of the policy, governance and institutional issues of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Brazil, India, Palau and Senegal. It is the first of four in a global series of case studies on MPAs. An initial volume provides a synthesis and analysis of all the studies. The set of global MPA case studies was designed to close a deficit in information on the governance of MPAs and spatial management tools, within both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation contexts. The studies examine governance opportunities in and constraints on the use of spatial management measures at the national level. They were also designed to inform implementation of the FAO Technical Guidelines on marine protected areas (MPAs) and fisheries, which were developed to provide information and guidance on the use of MPAs in the context of fisheries.
Africa,Asia,Australia/Oceania,Latin America
MPA,Social Issues,Governance
5
No
147
Sahgal, B., S. Sen and B. Grewal. The Sunderbans Inheritance. Sanctuary Asia, 2007.
books
Biodiversity,Social Issues in MPAs India
The Sundarbans is the ultimate land of the tiger, a swamp forest so dense and well protected by nature that even centuries of determined effort by humans has failed to destroy it. Was the Sundarbans named after the Sundari tree, or is it the literal Bengali translation for beautiful forest? Can some fish here really climb trees? Is the reputation of the Sundarbans’ tiger as a man-eater justified? Scholars will debate its origins, poets will sing its praises and naturalists will document its diversity. Meanwhile, another set of humans are concerning themselves with the future of the Sundarbans, the world’s largest mangrove forest. Will the mangroves and the animals that live here be able to survive the impact of global warming and climate change? Will poaching drive the tiger to extinction? Can something be done to save the Sundarbans? This volume is a photographic tribute to the wildlife haven and to the green warriors on both sides of the international border between India and Bangladesh, who live to protect raw nature. Apart from essays about various topics related to the Sunderbans, it also contains a detailed checklist of the flora and fauna of the region.
Asia
MPA,Social Issues,Climate Change
3
Photographic tribute
No
148
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Claire W. Armstrong, Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Quachi Thi Khanh Ngoc and Nguyen Hai Anh. Incorporating Fisheries Management into Biodiversity Conservation Policies to Enhance Effectiveness of MPAs: A case study in Cu Lao Cham MPA, Vietnam. Fish for the People 9 (2011) 3: 39-49
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management,Social Issues in MPAs Vietnam
A Marine Protected Area (MPA) was established in Cu Lao Cham in central Vietnam in 2005 with the main objectives of conserving the marine biodiversity; protecting and effectively exploiting the ecosystems, natural resources, environmental and cultural-historical values for sustainable development; and improving the livelihoods of households in and around Cu Lao Cham Marine Protected Area (CLC MPA). Cu Lao Cham, which is part of the Cham Islands, is located in the South China Sea and administered by the Municipality of Hoi An in Quang Nam Province of Central Vietnam.
Asia
Fisheries Management,MPA,Marine Biodiversity,Vietnam
4
No
149
Attwood, C. G., B. Q. Mann, J. Beaumont & J. M. Harris (1997): Review of the state of marine protected areas in South Africa, South African Journal of Marine Science, 18:1, 341-367
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management,Social Issues in MPAs South Africa
The use of marine protected areas (MPAs) in South Africa should be revised in the light of growing problems related to the over-use of marine resources. No consistent policy has been applied to the establishment and management of MPAs. Existing MPAs include marine reserves, restricted areas, single-species restricted areas, National Parks, estuarine protected areas, trawling reserves and offshore islands, declared under a variety of legislation. Marine reserves and restricted arcas have been declared under the Sea Fishery Act, but are managed by provincial authorities. The provincial authorities in the Northern, Western and Eastern Cape lack the necessary resources for marine management. By contrast, the KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service and the National Parks Board are adequately staffed and equipped to provide all the necessary managerial functions in their MPAs. The effectiveness of most MPAs is not assessed and they do not have clearly stated objectives or management plans. MPA boundaries are inappropriately demarcated at sea. Two marine biogeographic zones and two marine habitat types are poorly represented in MPAs. Ecologically and economically important species are well represented in MPAs, but effective protection is less satisfactory. Some MPAs are playing an important role in fisheries management. Community resource-use programmes in KwaZulu-Natal have helped to control poaching to some extent. It is recommended that South Africa establish a MPA Programme. MPA objectives should be clearly stated and communicated to the public through education programmes. Research, monitoring and enforcement in MPAs should be improved.
Africa
South Africa,MPA,Policy,Fisheries Management
4
No
150
Qiu, Wanfei. Governing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in China: Towards the Repositioning of the Central State and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University College London, November 2010.
Social Issues in MPAs China
There are growing academic and policy debates on how best to govern MPAs, concerning the benefits and risks of different governance approaches and instruments. This echoes the broader debates on the roles of state hierarchies, markets, and community participation in governing societal affairs. This study investigates the roles of different actors involved in governing MPAs, and the strengths and weaknesses of MPA governance in China. The research questions are addressed through three detailed case studies. Despite some variations, the three case study MPAs show major similarities in governance structure. In all three cases, the attitudes of key actors towards biodiversity conservation and their influences on MPA decision-making can be characterised by:
1) an unenthusiastic state, which often adopts a non-interventionist strategy in MPA management and law enforcement, as long as the MPAs exist on paper;
2) corporatised local governments, which are keen to influence and dominate MPA decision-making and law enforcement to promote economic development;
3) a growing private sector, which can both strengthen or undermine MPA governance by forming alliances with government institutions; and
4) silent local communities, whose influence on MPA governance has been very limited.
In addressing the key conflicts in governing MPAs in China, the use of economic instruments appears to be the most important steering mechanism. Both state steering and community participation are used less effectively. Overall, the imbalance of power in governing MPAs and the over-reliance on market-based approaches arguably leads to failures in protecting the interests of biodiversity and local communities. Restoring the balance of power in MPA governance in China may therefore mean repositioning the central state and empowering local communities, which will allow diversified and balanced use of different steering mechanisms. Returning to a balance of power will also provide for more effective and equitable governance outcomes.
Asia
MPA,China,Community,Empowerment,Politics,Governance
4
No
151
Jones P.J.S.1 (2007) Fishing industry and related views on no-take marine protected area proposals in SW England. Research Report, Department of Geography, University College London.
Documents and Reports
http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~ucfwpej/pdf/SWViews.pdf
Fisheries Management,Social Issues in MPAs United Kingdom
There are growing calls from some scientists and non-governmental/governmental organisations for no take marine protected areas (NTMPAs). These calls are a response to concerns about the ‘health’ of marine fish stocks and ecosystems. At a UK level, Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a relatively recent aspect of conservation policies. The proposals for the forthcoming Marine Bill include provisions for designating NTMPAs and whilst many organisations are lobbying for such provisions, the prospects are currently uncertain. Against this background, some fishermen and their representatives are increasingly concerned that NTMPAs will be imposed on them, threatening their economic sustainability and their ‘way of life’. Fishermen in the UK, as in most of the world, have enjoyed the rights to fish the total sea area, with the exception of safety/security exclusion zones, provided stocks are present and it is technically and economically feasible to exploit them. Conservation measures are imposed, such as quotas on certain species, partial/seasonal closures and various technical restrictions. However, all these measures are aimed at fish stock conservation objectives and other than these, the basic presumption has been that all areas can be fished, under the principle of ‘the freedom of the seas’. This presumption is now being undermined by increasing calls for NTMPAs, in which all fishing is banned, primarily in order to achieve marine biodiversity conservation objectives. These proposals raise many issues from the fishing industry’s perspective as they represent a fundamental challenge, through the introduction of marine biodiversity conservation objectives, to access rights decision-making processes. In order to gain a rich understanding of fishing industry and related views, these issues are explored in this report, based on a completely independent research project involving a programme of 51 semistructured interviews over May-October 2005 with 57 fishing industry representatives in south-west England (West Dorset, Devon & Cornwall). Whilst debates on NTMPAs are raging in policy and scientific circles, the views of the fishing industry are often neglected. This report is intended to provide a richer understanding of the different perspectives amongst the fishing industry on the issues raised by NTMPA proposals in SW England. It is hoped that this will help provide for a better understanding of fishermen’s views in such debates and help promote their fuller participation in such debates. The findings of these interviews in relation to specific issues can be summarised as follows but the main report includes many more quotes that illustrate the findings. Please note that the reported percentages often refer to the total number of interviewees that discussed a given issue, rather than the total number of all interviewees. The figures in brackets after the percentages indicate how many interviewees stated this perspective.
Europe
MPA,Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Ecosystem Approach
5
No
152
Gaspar, Anselmo Cesar. Local People’s Perceptions of Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study Of Ponta Do Ouro, Mozambique. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of Master of Environment and Development, in the Centre for Environment, Agriculture, and Development, School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg 2008.
Documents and Reports
Community based management,Social Issues in MPAs Mozambique
Marine protected areas (MPAs) cannot be managed outside the context of human societies that are dependent on their associated ecosystems and resources. This means that local people’s perceptions need to be considered in the establishment of MPAs as well as their subsequent management, planning and decision making processes. Accordingly, this study investigated respondents’ perceptions of the Ponta do Ouro – Kosi Bay MPA. The MPA is part of the now proclaimed Lubombo Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA). An interviewer - administered questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from 35 respondents, all resident in the study area and who are involved in various activities based on the coastal area and its marine resources. The focus of the study was on awareness regarding the establishment, impacts of the MPA, the setting of priorities for the MPA and lastly, respondents’ roles and responsibilities. The findings from the study reveal low levels of awareness of the establishment of the MPA among respondents, although there was acknowledgement of its potential contribution to biodiversity conservation. Various types of impacts of the establishment of the MPA were noted. The establishment of the MPA was perceived to negatively impact on the access to, and use of, marine resources. It was also felt that the MPA would impact on the exercise of traditional authority. Concerning the setting of future priorities for the MPA, socio-economic considerations, particularly job creation rated highest. Biodiversity conservation ranked highest in terms of factors that should shape the current priorities of the MPA. Overall, tourism and related job creation and biodiversity conservation were identified as the main opportunities associated with the establishment of the MPA. Controlling access to the area, curbing inappropriate resource use, controlling development and ensuring that local people benefit were highlighted as major opportunity benefits. Constraints were mainly considered in relation to the exercise of traditional leadership, access to the area and restrictions in selling of harvested marine resources. Regarding how to collaborate in the MPA, various skills among the respondents were mentioned, with respect to the following areas: enforcement (control, patrols and security) and community relations and awareness (including communication and the translation of documents). Lastly, while the respondents displayed both supportive and unsupportive attitudes as results of perceptions of the intended MPA, in an overall sense, the MPA was considered as a positive development. This was in spite of the perceived weak communications that exist at present between the authorities and local people. Enhanced, communication between authorities in charge of the MPA and local people could help to provide a more positive sentiment towards the MPA. This is particularly true of the local people who, if they understood the rationale for the MPA more fully and how it would impact on their use of the resources of the MPA, would be more likely to support its establishment and existence.
Africa
Mozambique,MPA,Participation,Impact,Enforcement
5
No
153
Francis, Julius, Agneta Nilsson and Dixon Warulnge. Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern African Region: How successful are they? Ambio 31 (2002): 7-8: 503-511
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Comoros
This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain in the eastern African Region. This includes the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; ii) large multiple use MPAs designed for coastal development as well as biodiversity protection; and iii) MPAs managed by a non-governmental organization (NGO) or the private sector. Each of these MPA types is examined according to the policies, legislation, and management systems they entail as well as the economic and community situation they operate within. The paper also provides a review of some eastern African MPAs in terms of their size and location, the type of MPA zonation schemes, and financial status. The successes of the different types of MPAs are discussed based on specifIc indicators such as changes in biodiversity infrastructure, compliance to regulations and the level of involvement of primary stakeholders in the management.
Africa
MPA,Kenya,Comoros,Madagascar,Seychelles,Governance,Conservation
4
No
154
Gonzalez, Clarence and Svein Jentoft. MPA in Labor: Securing the Pearl Cays of Nicaragua. Environmental Management, 2010. DOI 10.1007/s00267-010-9587-y
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Nicaragua
Implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has always a step-zero, i.e., an initial phase when the idea is incepted, communicated and negotiated among stakeholders. What happens during this phase is likely to have an impact later on. If not done right, the management of the MPA may encounter problems at later stage that will be difficult to correct. Inspired by this working theory, this article describes the effort to establish the Pearl Cays off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua as a protected area. This case study illustrates the critical actions to be taken during stepzero, i.e., what needs to be considered and done before an MPA is formally declared. The area investigated consists of a number of small islands (cays) and coral reefs, fishing grounds and marine turtle nesting areas. Throughout history, the cays have played an important role in sustaining livelihoods of nearby communities. Although the idea of an MPA was originally conservation, the communities saw it as an opportunity to regain ownership and control of the cays. By Nicaraguan law, in order to establish protected areas, consultation and approval from local people is required. In the case of the Pearl Cays, this has proved difficult. The article demonstrates how MPA initiatives must sometimes relate to already ongoing complex social processes in the area where they are to be instigated.
Central America
MPA,Social Issues,Fisheries,Livelihood,participatory approach
5
No
155
Riedmiller S. E. Private Sector Management of Marine Protected Areas - The Chumbe Island Coral Park Project In Zanzibar, Tanzania. Proceedings of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) Regional Workshop for the Indian Ocean, Maputo, Mozambique. 26-28 November, 2001. ICRI/ICRAN/UNEP/CORDIO.
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Tanzania
Chumbe Island Coral Park (CHICOP), established in 1991 and possibly the first fully functioning MPA in Tanzania, provides an illustration of issues that arise with the installation of a privately created and managed protected area. Challenges caused by the legal and institutional environment for private investment in conservation resulted in much higher costs than originally anticipated. The management experiences of CHICOP, its problems and achievements in the legal and institutional environment of Zanzibar are described, and lessons learned are summarised. Management costs of the privately established and managed park are only a fraction of what is normally needed for donor-funded projects through government agencies. Particularly, the training of local fishermen as park rangers by volunteers proved to be cost effective and crucial to the success of the MPA, and is presented as an example of direct partnership with stakeholders. Out of necessity, cost control and income-generating activities are more developed and successful, thus creating much better prospects of sustainability. Risks for private investors remain high due to the generally unfavourable investment climate, the volatile tourism market and the lack of long-term security of tenure. Because of these risks, and the more noticeable conservation impact on the ground, a case is made for more donor support to direct resource users from both the informal and formal private sectors, including to privately managed MPAs.
Africa
MPA,Legal Issues,Institutions,Tourism
4
No
156
Hogan & Hartson LLP. Protection of Maritime Areas in Belize. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. June 18, 2008.
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Right to Resources Belize
The conservation of maritime areas under Belizean jurisdiction is undertaken in the context of a relatively uncoordinated assortment of legislative acts. These acts give authority to several key government agencies, including the Fisheries Department, Forest Department, Lands and Survey Department, Port Authority, and Coastal Zone Management Authority. The legislation above provides several key conservation tools for private entities in Belize. A number of NGOs have entered into co-management agreements with the Fisheries Department to manage a series of marine reserves established under the Fisheries Act. There is also some limited precedent for private ownership of property rights in maritime areas through leases or ownership in fee. In addition, there is precedent for private ownership of certain property rights in maritime areas through the Belize Port Authority and Petroleum Acts. Private rights of action to protect environmental values are protected through the Environmental Protection Act and Nuisances Act. Part I identifies key geographic terms that apply to maritime areas; summarizes useful definitions and provisions in legislation affecting maritime areas; and identifies key agencies responsible for implementing the legislation. Part II discusses currently accessible legal tools for conservation, with an emphasis on property ownership interests and co-management agreements. Part III suggests several key legislative actions that could be taken to strengthen the ability of private organizations to conserve maritime areas, and Part IV brings together our final conclusions.
Central America
MPA,Property rights,Legislation
4
No
157
Rocliffe, S. The Role and Feasibility of Marine Conservation Agreements in the Western Indian Ocean. The University of York UK and The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Tanzania
Terrestrial private protected areas safeguard millions of hectares of biologically significant habitats worldwide, but uptake on submerged lands has been limited, due primarily to the erroneous assumption that the oceans are part of the commons and cannot be owned nor leased. In fact, commercial enterprises have been acquiring rights to marine and coastal areas for centuries for fisheries, energy and other uses. Increasingly, by using Marine Conservation Agreements, organisations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) have begun to acquire similar rights for purposes that safeguard marine resources and benefit local communities. The Conservancy is developing a wide-ranging analysis of the role and feasibility of MCAs in key regions worldwide. This report examines one such region – the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) – and documents findings from an analysis of the ocean and coastal legal frameworks in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Seychelles and South Africa. An exhaustive synthesis of the laws, policies and practices relating to use and management of coastal resources in the region reveals that MCAs are a feasible strategy in four of the five countries under consideration, and identifies suitable conservation partners. Through an additional analysis of the responses of key opinion leaders in the region, 10 MCA projects are identified and summarised and one detailed case study developed. Finally, the report identifies two limitations that may caveat interpretation of findings and suggests additional focused assessments to satisfy information needs.
Africa
Tanzania,South Africa,Seychelles,Protected Areas,MPA,Mozambique,Marine Ecosystems,Madagascar,Kenya,Conservation
4
No
158
Aswani, Shankar and Pam Weiant. Scientific Evaluation in Women's Participatory Management: Monitoring Marine Invertebrate Refugia in the Solomon Islands. Human Organization, Vol. 63, No.3, 2004 Copyright ([:) 2004 by the Society for Applied Anthropology 0018-7259/04/030301-19
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Role of Women Solomon Islands
This paper summarizes the results of a women's community-based marine protected area that has been successful in sustaining invertebrate biological resources and in promoting strong community support. We outline the project and the associated biological results, describe the processes involved in attaining a committed level of community participation, and review the lessons learned during the project's implementation. We attribute the project's preliminary success-improved shellfish biomass, enhanced local environmental awareness, and the reinvigoration of cultural management practices-to the following factors: I) the high level of participatory involvement and community leadership; 2) the local perception that shell beds have recovered rapidly and the role that scientific evaluation has played in reinforcing this notion; 3) a research program that is cross-fertilizing indigenous and scientific ecological knowledge; 4) the unique marine tenure system that allows for the project's development and the area's policing; and 5) the tangible economic incentives created by the development project, which ultimately empowers local women. We hope that the project's findings can be generalized to other regions of the world with operational sea-tenure regimes and that it can help to make the establishing of community-based marine protected areas (CBMPAs) across the Pacific region more effective.
Oceania
Solomon Is,Women,MPA,Marine Biodiversity,Marine Fisheries
4
No
159
Christie, Patrick and Ole-Moiyoi, L. Katrina. Status of Marine Protected Areas and Fish Refugia in The Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem. Report Prepared For The UN FAO Bay Of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Programme. February 2011.
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Bangladesh
This study was produced as part of the ongoing UN Food and Agriculture Organization‘s Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) Programme. This study reviews the status of marine protected areas (MPAs) and fish refugia in the Bay of Bengal and recommends priority interventions. One of the goals of MPAs is to enhance and sustain fisheries productivity and maintain marine biodiversity. By conducting the first regional review of MPAs across the eight Bay of Bengal countries, this study seeks to (1) provide baseline information necessary to build support for a more comprehensive approach to the establishment and management of MPAs across the region and (2) where possible, discuss current and potential linkages between MPAs and fisheries management in hopes of one day more effectively linking food security and conservation objectives. Methods include a detailed review of published, industry and government literature. In general, despite the need for marine and coastal protection, MPAs are not used consistently in the region. Terms, objectives, and levels of protection vary widely from country to country (though most countries do make use of standardized IUCN categories). Chronic challenges include a lack of basic social and ecological information that is needed for MPA design and management processes; jurisdictional overlap and ambiguity; a lack of monitoring and evaluation studies; and a shortage of funding that has bearing upon day-to-day management and enforcement at MPA site levels.
Asia
fisheries refugia,MPA,Food Security,Marine Biodiversity
4
No
160
Shipp, Robert L. No Take Marine Protected Areas (nMPAs) as a fishery management tool, a pragmatic perspective. A Report to the FishAmerica Foundation.
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management,Marine Protected Areas United States
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are portions of the marine environment which are protected from some or all human activity. Often these are proposed as a safeguard against collapse of fish stocks, although there are numerous other suggested purposes for their establishment. “No take” MPAs (hereafter referenced as nMPAs) are those from which no harvest is allowed. Other types include those where certain types of harvest are prohibited, which are reserved for certain user groups, or which are protected from other human activities such as drilling or dredging. Establishment of nMPAs may have numerous beneficial purposes. However, as a tool for fisheries management, where optimal and/or maximum sustainable yield is the objective, nMPAs are generally not as effective as traditional management measures, and are not appropriate for the vast majority of marine species. This is because most marine species are far too mobile to remain within an nMPA and/or are not overfished. For those few species that could receive benefit, creation of nMPAs would have an adverse effect on optimal management of sympatric forms. Eight percent of US fish stocks of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are reported to be experiencing overfishing. The finfish stocks included in this number are primarily pelagic or highly mobile species, movement patterns that don’t lend themselves to benefit from nMPAs. Thus a very small percentage, something less than 2 %, depending on mobility potentials, is likely to benefit from creation of these no-take zones. However, many of these species have come under management within the last decade, employing more traditional fishery management measures, and are experiencing recovery. MPAs (both “no take” and other types) can serve a positive function as a management tool in protecting breeding aggregations, in helping recovery of severely overfished and unmanaged insular fish populations with little connectivity to adjacent stocks, and in protecting critical habitat which can be damaged by certain fishing methods.
N. America
MPA,Fisheries Management,No-take Zones,Overfishing
4
No
161
Lindsey, G and Ann Holmes. Tourist Perspectives on a Marine Protected Area in Nha Trang, Viet Nam: Implications of Cultural Differences. "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium," the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, IN, May 31-June 4, 2000
Documents and Reports
http://dlcvm.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00001000/00/lindseyg042400.pdf
Marine Protected Areas Vietnam
The Khanh Hoa Province People's Committee, the Ministry of Fisheries, and the World Conservation Union (IUCN) are working to implement Viet Nam's first marine protected area (MPA) in Nha Trang Bay. The MPA plan calls for restriction of fishing and other extractive activities, control of pollution, and restrictions on uses of the area other than tourism and research. The plan also identifies tourism fees as the key element of a sustainable financing strategy. Depending on their magnitude and the demand for services, tourism fees potentially could limit the development of the industry, which in turn, would limit revenues needed to offset the decline of extractive industries. It is critical, therefore, to evaluate tourists’ opinions regarding perceived environmental problems in the proposed MPA, tradeoffs among policy objectives, and their willingness to pay for the MPA, including their preferences for different payment mechanisms.
This paper reports the results of a survey of local, other Vietnamese, and foreign tourists to islands that will be included in the MPA. The majority of respondents (74 percent) thought garbage on the beaches, water pollution, or vendors were a problem, and 55 percent thought the MPA was a good idea. Foreign tourists were significantly more likely to perceive environmental problems than were Vietnamese tourists, and persons who agreed there were environmental problems were significantly more likely to support the concept of an MPA, despite the potential for possible economic effects with distributive consequences. Willingness to pay was positively correlated with income. Although foreign tourists were on average willing to pay more, a larger proportion of Vietnamese tourists were willing to pay some amount to support the MPA. Higher proportions of tourists preferred fees on boats and tourist attractions than fees on hotels and restaurants. Preferences for payment mechanisms were not dependent on citizenship. Instead, some evidence of a strategic pattern of preferences emerged, with wealthier individuals more likely to support user fees on tourist activities, and intensive users of tourist services more inclined to support new taxes.
The results of this analysis are both encouraging and cautionary. The need for an MPA is clearly recognized by most tourists, especially foreign tourists, and most tourists are willing to pay modest fees to support the MPA. Given that education has significant impacts on both perceptions of problems and willingness to pay, educational programs may be an effective management strategy. It is unclear, however, whether willingness to pay for the MPA will be adequate for the many purposes that will require financial support. With careful planning, the needs and concerns of native and foreign tourists can be addressed and tourism can play a successful role in the implementation of the MPA.
Asia
MPA,Tourism
4
No
162
Mathieu, Laurence, Ian H. Langford and Wendy Kenyon. Valuing Marine Parks in a Developing Country: A Case Study of The Seychelles. CSERGE Working Paper GEC 2000-27
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Seychelles
A strategic issue facing many developing economies is the maintenance of natural resources, which are important in ecological terms as well as providing income from tourism. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of marine protected areas in the Seychelles. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to determine tourists willingness to pay (WTP) for visits to Seychelles marine national parks, but in addition, attitudinal and motivational data are related to respondents’ stated economic preferences. 300 interviews were conducted in the Seychelles during June 1998 and both tourists having visited a park and a more general population of tourists were surveyed. The results demonstrate that different economic values are predicted for respondents from different countries who display a range of both consumer and citizen behaviour in constructing their preferences. In addition, significantly different WTP amounts are predicted depending on which particular marine parks are visited. The discussion focuses on exploring how this information may be of use to policy makers in setting a realistic pricing policy for visitors to Marine National Parks in the Seychelles.
Africa
Marine Parks,Seychelles,Value
4
No
163
Jentoft, Svein, Jose J. Pascual-Fernandez, Raquel De la Cruz Modino, Manuel Gonzalez-Ramallal and Ratana Chuenpagdee. What Stakeholders Think About Marine Protected Areas: Case studies from Spain. Human Ecology (5 February 2012), pp. 1-13, doi:10.1007/s10745-012-9459-6
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Marine Protected Areas Spain
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often met with reluctance by affected stakeholders, and in some instances outright objection. Some argue that this is due to insufficient understanding of the functions of MPAs. Others suggest that it could be because of a perception that they are losing more than they are gaining. It is also possible that stakeholders are generally supportive of the idea but think that the MPA should be located elsewhere. We argue that it is images people have about what the MPA is and does that determine how they react. Drawing from three MPA case studies in Spain, we illustrate the importance of critical examination of stakeholders’ images and what they imply for the governance of MPAs.
Europe
Spain,Small Scale Fisheries,MPA,Governance
5
No
164
Davos, Climis A., Katy Siakavara, Athina Santorineou, Jonathan Side, Mark Taylor and Pablo Barriga. Zoning of marine protected areas: Conflicts and cooperation options in the Galapagos and San Andres archipelagos. Ocean & Coastal Management 50 (2007) 223–252. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2006.03.005
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Social Issues in MPAs Ecuador
Results are reported of an analysis of the conflicts that the zoning of marine protected areas might generate in the Galapagos and San Andres archipelagos given the involved stakeholders’ competing interests. This will assist stakeholders, including the final decision makers, to develop cooperation strategies for managing conflicts. Specifically, the analysis focused on the stakeholders’ conflicting priorities for a number of criteria deemed relevant to the evaluation of alternative geographical zoning configurations. Sets of statistically similar priorities are suggested as bargaining positions to those stakeholders who find it advantageous to seek cooperation with others sharing the same values instead of acting alone when debating MPA zoning alternatives. Another result that will contribute to cooperation strategies is the assessment of the solidarity of cohort groups of stakeholders as reflected by the extent of similarity among their priorities.
Latin America
MPA,Conflicts,Conflict Management
5
No
165
BOBLME (2011) Marine Managed Areas workshop report Penang, Malaysia, 18-19 January, 2011 BOBLME-2011-Ecology-06
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Bangladesh
This report presents the proceedings of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project Workshop on “The Status of Marine Managed Areas in the Bay of Bengal” held on 18-19 January 2011, at Penang, Malaysia. The workshop was hosted by the WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. The workshop was attended by Marine Protected Area specialists and practitioners from the eight BOBLME countries namely, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The workshop focused on the Subcomponent 3.2 (Marine Protected Areas in the Conservation of Regional Fish Stocks) to develop a better understanding of and promote a more comprehensive approach to the establishment and management of marine protected areas (MPAs) and fish refugia for sustainable fisheries management and biodiversity conservation objectives.
Asia
MPA,fisheries refugia,Marine resource Management,Fish Stock,Sustainable Fisheries
5
No
166
BOBLME (2011) Status of Marine Protected Areas and Fish Refugia in the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem. BOBLME-2011-Ecology-10
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management,Marine Protected Areas Bangladesh
The Bay of Bengal is one of the world’s sixty-four Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), and includes the coastal waters of the Maldives, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Coastal and marine resources play a critical role in these eight countries, and more than 400 million people in the region depend upon this 6.2 million km2 marine ecosystem for their food, livelihoods and security. Ensuring the health of this Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) will have direct bearing upon the ability of both current and future generations to meet their needs.
This study was produced as part of the ongoing UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) Programme. This study reviews the status of marine protected areas (MPAs) and fish refugia in the Bay of Bengal and recommends priority interventions. One of the goals of MPAs is to enhance and sustain fisheries productivity and maintain marine biodiversity. By conducting the first regional review of MPAs across the eight Bay of Bengal countries, this study seeks to (1) provide baseline information necessary to build support for a more comprehensive approach to the establishment and management of MPAs across the region and (2) where possible, discuss current and potential linkages between MPAs and fisheries management in hopes of one day more effectively linking food security and conservation objectives.
Asia
MPA,fisheries refugia,Marine Biodiversity,Food Security,Conservation
5
No
167
Cordell, John. Remapping the Waters: The Significance of Sea Tenure-Based Protected Areas. Third Conference on Property Rights, Economics, and Environment: Marine Resources. International Center for Research on Environmental Issues, Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, France. June, 2000.
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Social Issues in MPAs Brazil
Sea tenure practices have been found to be far more pervasive and diverse, particularly in small-boat, inshore fishing traditions than previously. There are debates about whether local sea tenure customs, which may act to limit entry in fisheries, can truly can be said to have conservation benefits, and whether and how such customs could be profitably incorporated in modern-day fisheries management regimes. Purposes and actual functions of tenure customs range from intentionally managing access to resources and sea territory, to fend off incursions by outsiders or competitors, to manage the spacing of fishing craft and gear in order to reduce internal social conflict, and, in certain cases, to control fishing pressure itself. In indigenous societies, sea tenure traditions tend to rest not on economic or even subsistence strategies, but on cultural and spiritual beliefs and values that have more to do with constructing and maintaining social identity and a ‘sense of place.’ The analysis in the paper makes a point of highlighting the cultural significance of local sea tenure which has many implications for future directions of marine conservation and fishery management work in the tropical areas.
Australia/Oceania,Latin America,World
Customary Tenure
4
No
168
CMCRI, Seaweed diversity and sustainable use in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. Report of a year long project carried out by Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Marine Algal Research Station, Mandapam Camp, 623519, Tamil Nadu. Science Outreach Series no. 16. Pp. 266-283 in Compendium of Research Findings on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable use in Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Vol. 2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust .
books
Marine Protected Areas India
A survey was carried out along the intertidal and subtidal areas of the Gulf of Mannar (from Rameswaram to Tuticorin) to identify places of seaweed abundance, to study seaweed species diversity and document rare/threatened/ endemic species, to identify localities where commercial harvest of seaweed is being undertaken and to recommend areas for sustainable seaweed harvesting. 99 species were recorded, of which 21 were classified as rare. Gracilaria edulis which was abundant earlier is now rare due to over exploitation and is listed as endangered. Harvesting of Sargassum and Turbinaria could be continued to be allowed as both seaweeds have rich biomass. Meeting of scientists and seaweed collectors may be arranged periodically to explain about the importance of sustainable harvesting and GOMBRT should make efforts to involve the seaweed industry as a partner in the cultivation of commercial seaweed.
Asia
Seaweed,MPA
4
No
169
Jones, P.J.S., E.M. De Santo, W. Qiu and O. Vestergaard. Introduction: an empirical framework for deconstructing the realities of governing marine protected areas. Marine Policy, 2013. Special Issue – Governing marine protected areas: towards social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity (based on MPA Governance project www.mpag.info)
Documents and Reports
www.mpag.info
Marine Protected Areas Australia
Debates surrounding governance strategies for marine protected areas (MPAs) have to date largely focused on top-down, bottom-up or market-based approaches. Whilst co-management approaches for governing MPAs are widely accepted as a way forward for combining these three strategies, many interpretations of this concept exist and it is applied in many different ways in MPAs in different contexts. This study aimed to explore governance through a case-study approach based on a specifically developed empirical framework – the marine protected area governance (MPAG) analysis framework – to increase understanding of how to combine the three governance approaches. A dialogue with MPA practitioners in 20 case studies helped shape the MPAG analysis framework as it developed, and an international workshop was held on ‘Governing MPAs’, bringing the practitioners together to compare results and further develop the framework. This paper provides an overview of the topic and research methodology and briefly introduces the case studies further explored in this special issue.
Africa,Asia,Australia/Oceania,Europe,Latin America,N. America
MPA,Governance,Co-management
4
No
170
Jones, P.J.S., W. Qiu and E.M. De Santo. Governing marine protected areas: social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity. Marine Policy. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.026
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Marine Protected Areas,Community based management,Co-management United States
Marine protected areas (MPAs) worldwide are facing increasing driving forces, which represent a major and increasing challenge for MPA governance. The Marine Protected Area Governance (MPAG) project examined a range of different incentives – economic, interpretative, knowledge, legal and participative – employed to address the driving forces and promote effectiveness in 20 case studies across the globe. This paper argues that, regardless of the MPA governance approach adopted (i.e., government-led, decentralised, private or community-led), resilience in MPA governance systems derives from employ- ing a diversity of inter-connected incentives. The significance of institutional diversity to governance systems parallels that of species diversity to ecosystems, conferring resilience to the overall socio– ecological system. The paper concludes that, in the face of strong driving forces, rather than relying on particular types of incentives and institutions, it is important to recognise that the key to resilience is diversity, both of species in ecosystems and of institutions in governance systems.
N. America,Latin America,Europe,Central America,Australia/Oceania,Asia,Africa
Social Issues,MPA,Institutions,Governance,Community Based Management
4
No
171
Jones, P.J.S., 2013. Governing protected areas to fulfil biodiversity conservation obligations: from Habermasian ideals to a more instrumental reality. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 15 (1): 39-50. DOI:10.1007/s10668-012-9375-3
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Social Issues in MPAs United Kingdom
This paper considers the implications of the growing recognition of scale challenges, with a particular focus on those concerning the governance of protected areas (PAs), through a critical literature review. Two key scale challenges raised by PAs are considered: (1) the divergence of objectives between resource exploitation and biodiversity conservation; (2) the requirement to fulfil biodiversity conservation obligations. These are explored through a review of a UK marine PA case study which found that though even though the state had adopted a controlling role that had created tensions by undermining the authority and livelihoods of some stakeholders, the partnership had been sufficiently strengthened to withstand these tensions through the instrumental development of ‘bracing social capital’. Four conclusions for governance research with a particular reference to PA governance are drawn and it is argued that presumptions based on Habermasian ideals should not constrain governance analyses, in that they should constructively incorporate the instrumental roles of the state.
Europe
Biodiversity,Conservation,MPA,Governance
4
No
172
Mahadevan, S. and K. Nagappan Nayar. Distribution of Coral Reefs in the Gulf Of Mannar and Palk Bay and their Exploitation and Utilization. : Proceedings of Symposium on Coral Reef, Mandapam: 181- 190.
Documents and Reports
http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6781/1/mahadevan.pdf
Marine Protected Areas India
Running parallel to the shore in the Gulf of Mannar along the Indian coast are situated 21 islands of limited extent between Lat. 8•47' N-Long. 78• 12' E and Lat. 90 1S•N-Long. 79°14'E. These islands are extensive in the depth and quantity of the coral rt:efs around them. In addition to these islands, coral reefs exist also around the Rameswaram Island, the largest island in this series, which is all but contiguous with the mainland but for a short span of 2 km from Thonithurai to Pamban. Here the reefs start from NNE of Rameswaram shore and run around DeviI's Point parallel to the shore and extend up to Mandapam in Palk Bay where they end. The corals of these localities are being quarried for industrial purposes. The Tuticorin type of boats with a small crew of fishermen operate for breaking the corals during the months of October to May in the Gulf of Mannar and May to September in the Palk Bay. The bulk of the stones quarried now are from the islands north of Nallatanni tivu. The collection and utilisation of coral stones in the carbide industry and in the lime manufacture are detailed and the economics of the coral stone fishermen are given. The annual rate of removal of coral stones at the present level of exploitation seems to warrant a detailed survey of the exploitable coral resources in the area now exploited and the enforcement of a scheme for rational exploitation of the coral stones.
Asia
Marine Biodiversity,Coral Reefs,MPA
4
No
173
Mascia, Michael B. The Human Dimension of Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas: Recent Social Science Research and Its Policy Implications. Conservation Biology, Volume 17, No. 2, April 2003, Pages 630–632
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Marine Protected Areas World
Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services to millions of people around the world. Traditional efforts to manage coral reefs—species by species, sector by sector—have proven insufficient to ensure resource sustainability or to protect biodiversity against these threats, spurring calls for an ecosystem-oriented approach. Central to this ecosystem approach to coral reef management are marine protected areas (MPAs). Although the number of coral reef MPAs has grown rapidly in recent years, their performance remains highly variable. Research suggests that social factors, not biological or physical variables, are the primary determinants of MPA success or failure. Efforts to design more effective coral reef MPAs are hindered, however, by the dearth of social scientific research into the human dimensions of MPA development and management. Social science research presented during the ninth International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS; in Bali, Indonesia, 2000) provides valuable insights into the human dimensions of coral reef MPAs. In this paper, findings from social science MPA research delivered at the ICRS are synthesized and several implications of these findings for coral reef MPA policy are suggested.
General
Social Issues,MPA,Coral Reefs
4
No
174
McCay, B. and Peter J.S. Jones, 2011. Marine Protected Areas and the Governance of Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries. Conservation Biology, 25(6), 1130-1133. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01771.x
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Australia
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are spatially defined marine units in which one or more human activities - particularly fishing - are restricted or prohibited. They represent a precautionary and ecosystem-based approach to ocean management (Mangel 2000; Pikitch et al. 2004; Jones 2006). The 1992 Convention for Biological Diversity set a target for 10% of the global marine area to be designated as MPAs by 2010. Progress with designating MPAs is, however, slow, MPAs covering just 1.3% of the marine area and 3.2% of marine areas under national jurisdiction. Consequently, the deadline was recently extended to 2020. Nonetheless, in the past two decades there has been a rapid increase in MPA research and implementation throughout the world. If the governance of MPAs is improved in ways we describe here, MPAs and other place-based approaches will continue to be important tools for the management of marine resources.
Australia/Oceania
MPA,Governance,Ecosystem Approach
4
No
175
Nordlund, Lina, Ulrike Kloiber, Eleanor Carter and Sibylle Riedmiller (2013). Chumbe Island Coral Park—governance analysis. Marine Policy. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.018
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Tanzania
Chumbe Island Coral Park Ltd (CHICOP), established in 1991 as the first managed marine park in Tanzania, has become an international test case for sustainable private marine conservation funded by ecotourism. The experiences, problems and achievements of CHICOP are described, in particular drivers and incentives for committed on-site MPA management in the legal and institutional environment of Zanzibar. The employment of local fishers as park rangers proved cost-effective and facilitated partnership with local fishing communities, as did Environmental Education (EE) programs for local schools and communities. Risks for private investors remain high though due to limited long-term security of tenure of leases and contracts.
Africa
MPA,Ecotourism,Zanzibar
5
No
176
Stevenson, T.C. and B.N. Tissot. Evaluating marine protected areas for managing marine resource conflict in Hawaii. Marine Policy 39(2013) 215–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.11.003
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas United States
Conflict surrounding commercial fisheries is a common phenomenon when diverse stakeholders are involved. Harvesting reef fish for the global ornamental fish trade has provoked conflict since the late 1970s in the State of Hawaii. Two decades later the state of Hawaii established a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the west coast of the island of Hawaii (‘‘West Hawaii’’) to protect and enhance the fish resources and alleviate conflict between stakeholders, principally between commercial dive tour operators and aquarium fishers. The perceptions held by these stakeholders on West Hawaii and Maui were evaluated to understand how MPAs influenced conflict dimensions, as the former location had a well-established MPA network designed to alleviate conflict, while the latter did not. This was accomplished by analyzing the following questions: (1) perceptions about the effectiveness of MPAs to alleviate conflict and enhance reef fish; (2) perceived group encounters and threats to coral reefs; (3) willingness to encourage fishing; and (4) value orientations toward the aquarium fish trade. The results indicate the MPAs in West Hawaii were moderately effective for alleviating conflict, encounters between stakeholders occurred on both islands, dive operators strongly opposed commercial fishing and perceived aquarium fishing as a serious threat to the coral reef ecosystem, and polarized value orientations toward the aquarium fish trade confirms pervasive social values conflict. The conflict between these groups was also asymmetrical. MPAs are inadequate for resolving long term conflict between groups who hold highly dissimilar value orientations toward the use of marine resources. Future marine spatial planning and MPA setting processes should include stakeholder value and conflict assessments to avoid and manage tensions between competing user groups.
N. America
Hawaii,MPA,Conflict Management
5
No
177
Clifton, J. Refocusing conservation through a cultural lens: Improving governance in the Wakatobi National Park, Indonesia. Marine Policy(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.015i
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas,Co-management Indonesia
The Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia offers valuable insights into the effectiveness of governance incentives in a national context characterised by uncoordinated policies and evolving conflicts over power and authority within government. Economic incentives resulting from strategic alliances between the public and private sector have been targeted towards enhanced regulation of fisheries and supporting tourism interests. However, the absence of coherent policies relating to tourism, which partly reflects contests over jurisdiction between national and local levels of government, opens up considerable potential for inappropriate forms of development. Furthermore, any incentives designed to facilitate governance should explicitly recognise the status of the Bajau, who constitute a key stakeholder group yet have been consistently marginalised through both state and NGO initiatives. The possible outcomes of ongoing decentralisation, which include enhanced government accountability, flexibility in developing regulations relating to marine resource use and greater participation of minority groups in decision-making, offer some prospect for improved governance of the Wakatobi and other marine protected areas in Indonesia.
Asia
National Parks,MPA,Indonesia,Governance,Decision Making
4
No
178
Abecasis, Rita Costa, Nancy Longnecker, Luisa Schmidt and Julian Clifton. Marine conservation in remote small island settings: Factors influencing marine protected area establishment in the Azores. Marine Policy 40 (2013) 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.032
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Portugal
This paper examines the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) in remote small island settings with specific reference to the Portuguese island of Corvo in the Azores. This case study represents different approaches to marine conservation, ranging from an informal community-based no-take MPA to a government-driven multi-purpose natural park, involving diverse local and external actors interacting over an extended period of time. In-depth interviews were used to explore the perceptions of local and expert stakeholders about positive and negative aspects of MPA establishment. This demonstrated how differing approaches have led to varying degrees of MPA effectiveness. From the community-based MPA, several key ingredients for effective MPA establishment were identified, including engaging and empowering local communities, clear definition of goals, visible MPA outputs and community enforcement based on high levels of support and peer group pressure. However, in a context of complex marine resource use, the limitations of community-based initiatives prevent them from achieving broad ecosystem conservation goals. These might be better achieved through government-driven MPAs, provided that they are integrated in a wider regional marine strategy and that there is political will to effectively implement conservation measures and to allocate resources for management, enforcement and monitoring.
Europe
MPA,SIDS,Stakeholders
4
No
179
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Roush Marine Protected Area Community, Socotra. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY
Documents and Reports
Community based management,Marine Protected Areas Yemen
Roush Protected Area Community, Socotra, is located one kilometer north of Socotra, an island off the coast of Yemen. The marine protected area belongs to the communities of Sacra and Diherhom villages, and was developed in response to an observed decline in marine resources and fish populations. A conservation area and eco-campsite were established, and the initiative was later broadened to include conservation activities more generally.
The campsite has created local jobs and benefits are shared equitably amongst participating communities. The initiative follows principles of environmental responsibility, using solar panels for energy and undertaking sustainable management of water. In addition to the benefits of ecotourism revenues, Sacra and Diherhom villages have benefitted from increased stocks of fish and other marine resources.
Africa
MPA,Ecotourism
4
No
180
Vuki, V., G. Garces and L. Quinata. People’s perception on the establishment of marine reserves: The case of Chamorro villagers in southern Guam. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin #21, pp25-30, December 2010
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas Guam
After the implementation of community based marine protection areas in the south of Guam, this survey was undertaken to assess people’s perception on the success of the development of the project, the challenges faced and the variables involved. There was a strong support for the establishment of community based conservation areas, restriction on harvest of certain species and restrictions on certain gear as opposed to discontinuing recreational fishing or subsistence fishing. This was coupled with high levels of marine awareness and the indication of an interest by respondents to know more about fisheries management tools. The Chomorro communities in southern Guam strongly support the implementation of community based management initiatives. There was also strong awareness of the environmental factors that affect fisheries resources.
Oceania
MPA,Community Based Management,Subsistence Fisheries,recreational fisheries,gear restrictions
4
No
181
Cohen, Philippa Jane (2013). The contribution of locally managed marine areas to small-scale fisheries and food security – a Solomons Islands case study. PhD thesis, James Cook University.
Documents and Reports
http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/28954/
Marine Protected Areas Solomon Islands
Small-scale fisheries support the livelihoods and food security of millions of people worldwide, and if well managed can make significant contributions to socio-economic development. Coastal populations in developing countries can be highly reliant on coastal resources as small-scale fisheries provide an important source of income generation, are an important source of food, and in many areas often provide the primary source of dietary protein and micronutrients. However the sustainability of small-scale fisheries and the benefits they provide are under increasing pressure as populations grow, markets develop, technologies change and environments become degraded. Community-based and collaborative strategies (i.e., co-management) emerge as an important strategy to address challenges faced in managing small-scale fisheries. By engaging small-scale fishers in management, comanagement can more effectively sustain benefits provided by fisheries. In so doing, co-management can support the three pillars of food security i.e., by protecting resource availability and access, the role of fisheries in nutrition may be sustained or improved.
The expansion of co-management initiatives is particularly apparent in the Indo-Pacific where centralised approaches have typically had low levels of success in managing subsistence and domestically-marketed fisheries. In this region co-management initiatives combine scientific information and conventional approaches to marine resource management, with local knowledge and institutions; a model referred to as locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). There are now hundreds of coastal communities with LMMAs in which a range of resource-use rules are developed and implemented at the community level, often with support from government or non-government organisations (NGOs). However, despite widespread arguments that such models of co-management can result in sustainable fisheries, empirical studies that systematically demonstrate benefits to fisheries and to food security are lacking. This thesis presents a case study of Solomon Islands to address the overarching question; do locally managed marine areas contribute to sustainable smallscale fisheries, and what the implications are for food security.
Australia/Oceania
MPA,LMMA,Food Security,Co-management,Small Scale Fisheries,Sustainable Fisheries
4
No
182
Edgar, G. Does the global network of marine protected areas provide an adequate safety net for marine biodiversity? Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 21: 313–316 (2011). DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1187
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas World
As recognized in the 2020 Strategic Plan for the Conservation of Biological Diversity, the global marine protected area (MPA) network is far from comprehensive with no more
than 1% of the sea surface is currently included within MPAs and with a much smaller proportion (probably <0.1%) included within the fully protected ‘no-take’ subset. It is often the case that regardless of the stated goals of MPAs, the focus Is often on fishing activities and potential resource enhancement benefits while ignoring assessment of broader biodiversity conservation benefits. Our understanding of MPA benefits for biodiversity conservation is also greatly hampered by a limited set of MPA studies with basis of field observations and the small subset of those where outcomes have generality. Many MPAs have failed to achieve biodiversity goals because of 1) illegal harvest, 2) Legal harvest above levels consistent with biodiversity goals, 3) Hysteresis in patterns of ecological change, 4) Excessive spillover, 5) Insufficient time for MPA effects to manifest and 6) poor location. While models and prior hypotheses about the nature of marine reserves have been put forward, they need to be tested with data to improve fundamental understanding on the effects of MPAs on biodiversity.
World
MPA,Biodiversity,Conservation,Fisheries
4
No
183
Edgar, Graham J., Rick D. Stuart-Smith, Trevor J. Willis, Stuart Kininmonth, Susan C. Baker, Stuart Banks, Neville S. Barrett, Mikel A. Becerro, Anthony T. F. Bernard, Just Berkhout, Colin D. Buxton, Stuart J. Campbell, Antonia T. Cooper, Marlene Davey, Sophie C. Edgar, Günter Försterra, David E. Galván, Alejo J. Irigoyen, David J. Kushner, Rodrigo Moura, P. Ed Parnell, Nick T. Shears, German Soler, Elisabeth M. A. Strain and Russell J. Thomson. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506, 216–220 (13 February 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13022
Documents and Reports
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13022.html
Marine Protected Areas World
In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100 km2), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250 mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value
World
MPA,Fisheries,shark,Conservation,Compliance
4
No
184
Halpern, Benjamin S. Conservation: Making marine protected areas work. Nature 506, 167–168 (13 February 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13053
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas World
Globally consistent surveys of five factors influencing the success of marine protected areas — age, size, isolation, protection and enforcement — reveal that only when all five are present does nature thrive.
World
MPA
4
No
185
Stevenson, Todd C., Brian N. Tissot, William J. Walsh, Socioeconomic consequences of fishing displacement from marine protected areas in Hawaii, Biological Conservation, Volume 160, April 2013, Pages 50-58, ISSN 0006-3207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.11.031.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320712005277
Marine Protected Areas United States
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented across the globe to protect marine biodiversity, critical habitats, and to enhance commercially harvested fish stocks. Although ecological effects of MPAs are well documented, their impacts on fishing communities and the spatial distribution of fishing effort remains elusive and poorly understood. In 1999, a MPA network was implemented to protect against perceived declines of reef fish harvested for the aquarium trade on the island of Hawaii. We investigated how the MPA network altered the spatial distribution of fishing effort and impacted perceived fisher socioeconomic well-being and fishing operations, as well as if the economic and catch benefits offset costs in the newly established non-MPA fishing areas. Data were collected using social surveys, experimental fishing, and catch reports. The results suggest the MPA network significantly displaced fishing effort from the central to the northern and southern coastal regions of the island farther from ports of entry. Estimated catch revenues and experimental catch per unit effort were statistically greater as distance from port of entry increased. Perceived fisher socioeconomic well-being was unaffected, but perceived fishing cost and travel time increased significantly post-MPA network implementation. Although the MPA network displaced fishing effort, fisher socioeconomic well-being was not compromised likely because they expanded their operating range and favorable market factors helped offset potential economic losses. Our findings are relevant because they help clarify how MPA networks alter spatial fishing behavior and impact the well-being of small-scale fishers.
N. America
MPA,Fisheries,Reef Fisheries,Hawaii,Socio-economic Aspects,well being
4
No
186
Spalding, M.D., Imèn Meliane, Amy Milam, Claire Fitzgerald and Lynne Z. Hale. Protecting marine spaces: global targets and changing approaches. Ocean Yearbook 27: 213-248.
Documents and Reports
Marine Protected Areas World
Threats to the marine environment are complex, multiple and often overlapping or synergistic. Mitigating these threats, likewise, is not simple, but rather relies upon multiple management approaches, ranging from controls on fishing, sand and gravel extraction, energy development, shipping, and waste water disposal, to active interventions such as restoration and re-stocking, through to managing ex situ threats by managing human activities in adjacent watersheds. Among this array of approaches, one of the key tools for conservation has been marine protected areas (MPAs). The authors believe that similar to identification of EBSAs to help prioritize biodiversity conservation in MPA, similar and equally strong approaches and initiatives are needed to ensure that human benefits are maximized. Successful and sustainable marine spatial management depends on a twintrack approach of MPAs couched within broader management settings. The aim of such management includes both maintaining biodiversity and enabling socioeconomic development
General
MPA,Ecosystem Based Management,Ecosystem Approach,EbA,EBSA
4
No
187
Stacey NE, Karam J, Meekan MG, Pickering S, Ninef J. Prospects for whale shark conservation in Eastern Indonesia through bajo traditional ecological knowledge and community-based monitoring. Conservat Soc (2012):10:63-75
Documents and Reports
http://www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2012/10/1/63/92197
Marine Protected Areas Indonesia
The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a long-lived migratory species inhabiting tropical and warm-temperate waters worldwide. Seasonal aggregations of whale sharks in shallow coastal waters of many countries have led to the development of ecotourism industries. Whale sharks that aggregate seasonally at Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia have a migration range within Indonesian and Southeast Asian waters. However, very little is known about their behaviour, local migration patterns, or potential threats faced in this region. In this study, we investigated traditional ecological knowledge of whale sharks through interviews with Bajo and other fishers from five settlements in the Timor and Roti Islands in eastern Indonesia. We found that there are culturally driven prohibitions and customary beliefs concerning whale sharks among Bajo fishermen, who commonly sight sharks in the Timor Sea, in southern Indonesian and Timor Leste waters. Sightings are most common during the months of August to December. Interviews also indicate a low level of harvesting of whale sharks in the region. The results demonstrate the potential for combining traditional ecological knowledge and new technology to develop whale shark management strategies, and to determine the predictability of whale shark appearances as one vital factor in assessing the potential for development of small-scale whale shark ecotourism initiatives.
Asia
whale shark,Traditional ecological knowladge,shark,MPA,Community Based Management
4
No
188
Cohen, Philiappa Jane (2013) The contribution of locally managed marine areas to small-scale fisheries and food security - a case study in Soloman Islands. Phd Thesis James Cook University
http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/28954/1/28954_Cohen_2013_Thesis.pdf
Marine Protected Areas Solomon Islands
This thesis presents a case study of Solomon Islands to address the overarching question: do locally managed marine areas contribute to sustainable small scale fisheries and what are the implications for food security? This research found that periodically harvested closures were the main form of management employed by communities with LMMAs. It was found that periodically harvested closures can achieve at least short term benefits by bolstering catch rates of invertebrates, and leading to catches with slightly larger fish in some species. However, harvesting during periodic harvests was intense and there was evidence that this led to substantial localized depletion of invertebrate stocks. Further, as local social and economic needs (rather than ecological knowledge and indicators) often drive decisions to open areas to harvest, the short term benefits may be threatened by rising demand, and heavier and more frequent fishing events in the medium to long term. Achieving nation-wide sustainable fisheries management will require marine resource governance to be comprehensive and widespread, requiring more than the currently localized small scale advances.
Australia/Oceania
LMMA,MPA,Closed Area,Closed seasons,Governance,Fisheries Management
4
No
189
White, Alan T. Porfirio M. Aliño , Annick Cros , Nurulhuda Ahmad Fatan , Alison L. Green , Shwu Jiau Teoh , Lynette Laroya , Nate Peterson , Stanley Tan , Stacey Tighe , Rubén Venegas-Li , Anne Walton & Wen Wen (2014) Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle: Progress, Issues, and Options, Coastal Management, 42:2, 87-106, DOI: 10.1080/08920753.2014.878177
Documents and Reports
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2014.878177
Marine Protected Areas East Timor
The six Coral Triangle countries—Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines,
Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste—each have evolving systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) at the national and local levels. More than 1,900 MPAs covering
200,881 km2 (1.6% of the exclusive economic zone for the region) have been established within these countries over the last 40 years under legal mandates that range from village level traditional law to national legal frameworks that mandate the protection of large areas as MPAs. The focus of protection has been primarily on critical marine habitats and ecosystems, with a strong emphasis on maintaining and improving the status of near-shore fisheries, a primary food and economic resource in the region. This article brings together for the first time a consistent set of current data on MPAs for the six countries and reviews progress toward the establishment of MPAs in these countries with regard to (i) coverage of critical habitat (e.g., 17.8% of the coral reef habitat within the region lies within an MPA), (ii) areas under effective management, and (iii) actions needed to improve the implementation of MPAs as a marine conservation and resource management strategy. The contribution of MPAs to the Coral Triangle MPA System as called for in the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security Regional Plan of Action is clarified. Options for scaling up existing MPAs to networks of MPAs that are more ecologically linked and integrated with fisheries management and responsive to changing climate through the Coral Triangle MPA System development are discussed. A key point is the need to improve the effectiveness of existing MPAs, and plan in a manner leading to ecosystem-based management.
Asia,Australia/Oceania
MPA,Coral Reefs,Food Security,Fisheries Management
4
No
190
Mellado, Tiscar, Timothée Brochier, Julien Timor, Javier Vitancurt, Use of local knowledge in marine protected area management, Marine Policy, Volume 44, February 2014, Pages 390-396, ISSN 0308-597X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.10.004.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X13002297
Marine Protected Areas Uruguay
For decades, fishermen in most parts of the world have been experiencing a reduction in fish abundances. Overexploitation and increasing demands are the glaring visible causes, but weakness or absence of fishery management is the core problem. Faced with repeated failure of fishery management and the resulting overexploitation in fish stocks, new management plans are needed in order to preserve both fishermen's jobs and food security. A growing number of published sources have proposed marine protected areas (MPA) as a fishery management tool. The decision of MPA design requires close collaboration with local fishermen communities for it to be accepted and respected. This paper focus on the case of a Uruguayan lagoon, the Rocha lagoon, which is exploited by two fishermen communities. The lagoon is located inside a national park. Park authorities are in the process of designing a management plan that defines a MPA inside the lagoon. The plan also sets out the rules to be upheld for the artificial opening of the sandbar that separates the lagoon from the ocean. It is shown that it is relevant to study the local ecological knowledge (LEK) in order (1) to understand the fishery related ecological issues within the lagoon and (2) to highlight an existing conflict between two fishermen communities. Studying the LEK allowed a clear representation of the factors that must be taken into account when defining the management plan. Furthermore, the LEK study in itself creates an appropriate place for inter-community debate and it enhances the acceptance of the future management plan.
Latin America
Local knowladge,Traditional ecological knowladge,MPA,participatory approach,Artisanal Fisheries
4
No
191
Gustavsson, Madeleine, Lars Lindström, Narriman S. Jiddawi, Maricela de la Torre-Castro, Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based managed Marine Protected Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania, Marine Policy, Volume 46, May 2014, Pages 91-100, ISSN 0308-597X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.01.005.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14000074
Marine Protected Areas Tanzania
Local participation in governance and management is assumed to lead to something good. But it is rarely explicitly stated who are participating and in what. The study investigates this in the context of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Zanzibar, Tanzania, and in particular the Memba Island – Chwaka Bay Marine Conservation Area (MIMCA). This is done by applying Pretty's typology of participation in addressing procedural justice, which is according to Paavola linked to distributive justice, i.e. the just distribution of costs and benefits. How does participation in MIMCA facilitate procedural and distributive justice? To answer this question a number of fishermen, women seaweed farmers, local leaders, and representatives of the private sector were interviewed (n=136) in five villages. Interviews were also made with government officials at relevant departments. The results show that Village Fishermen Committees were participating in the implementation of MIMCA but not in its planning phase. Participation was mainly in the form of manipulative and passive participation. Other local actors did not participate at all. Instead, the government assumed that justice was achieved by distributing equipment, alternative income generating projects, and relying on tourism for local development. However, the distributed equipment and tourism development have created conflict and injustice within and between villages, because of the insufficient resources which did not target those in need. Tourism created problems such as inequality between livelihoods, environmental destruction and local power asymmetries between hotel management and local people. The MIMCA top-down intervention has not increased participation or justice, nor has it achieved sustainable resource use and conflict resolution. It is suggested that interactive participation by all local actors is needed to create just trade-offs. Justice needs to be explicitly addressed for integrated conservation and development projects to achieve sustainability.
Africa
Zanzibar,MPA,justice,Livelihood
4
No